Table of contents:
- What to talk about on the eve of the holiday of flowers, if not about a rose - the most luxurious decoration of both a bouquet and a garden. On March 18, the magazine "Sad & Sadik" invited its readers to a meeting with the curator of the collection of roses of the GBS RAS, L.I.Bumbbeeva
What to talk about on the eve of the holiday of flowers, if not about a rose - the most luxurious decoration of both a bouquet and a garden. On March 18, the magazine "Sad & Sadik" invited its readers to a meeting with the curator of the collection of roses of the GBS RAS, L.I.Bumbbeeva
The rose is famous primarily for its scent. Did you know that only 25% of roses have a characteristic essential oil smell - this is a recessive trait and therefore is often lost during hybridization. This is how most rose varieties were obtained, and only 10% was selected from kidney mutations.
The modern classification of roses includes 35 groups, but only 5 of them are the main ones according to the principle of application in the garden:
- Species roses (make up only 1% of the range of roses). There are about 300 species in nature, about 100 are widespread in our country.
- Hybrid tea roses (45%). This group emerged in 1867 with the appearance of the first hybrid tea variety "La France".
- Floribunda (25%). A relatively young group, the first variety was registered in 1925.
- Grandiflora (less than 200 varieties). Close to either hybrid tea or Floribunda.
- Shrubs (10%) - shrub roses, mainly up to 1.5 m high. The most promising group for landscaping cities is roses of the XXI century. This group includes both climbing and ground cover roses.
Now is the season for selling roses for spring planting. When buying, pay attention to the root system - it should be lively, not over-dried and not cut down to 15 cm.If the rhizome does not have thin roots, but consists of several thick branches, the grafting is made on a multifloral rose (Rosa multiflora), which is not immune in our zone. Only roses grafted onto a dog rose (Rosa canina) will be able to winter here. The buds should not be sprouted. If the shoots are covered with wax, remove it.
Most of the roses come from Europe in spring and go through a long storage period - up to 9 months. Therefore, the purchased planting material should be dug in as soon as possible in a bucket or box before planting. Pale etiolated shoots must be removed.
The success of growing roses depends on grooming. “Agrotechnics is your love for plants,” says Lyubov Ivanovna. For landing, you need to choose the sunniest, warmest, sheltered from the winds. The proximity of groundwater should not be allowed - Rosa canina, on which the varieties are grafted, is rooted to a depth of 2 m, therefore, in an area with a high groundwater level, competent drainage or raising the soil is required. Broken brick at the bottom of the pit is a useless measure.
Roses are favorable to the soils near Moscow in acidity (pH 5-6), but they need to be improved by the introduction of organic matter - manure, peat compost. "Rose is the daughter of manure." It is recommended to put only organic matter in the planting pit, mineral fertilizers will not be absorbed until they are completely rooted and they will be washed out.
All over the world, the rose is an open culture, even in Canada, which corresponds in latitude to the Krasnodar Territory, but where more snow falls in winter. Only hybrids of the Rosa rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa), even from the range of "Canadian winter-hardy roses", can be uncovered in our zone. They only need to bend the shoots without pruning and covering.
Before planting, the roots are dipped in a clay mash with the addition of a mullein, after cutting off the tips. When planting, the roots cannot be bent; it is more convenient to plant together. The soil around the roots is squeezed tightly and spilled to prevent root growth. The root collar should be covered with earth and piled up with a layer of 10 cm.
When planting in spring, it is important to pinch the flowers in order to prevent the first flowering, then the second flowering will be more abundant. In subsequent years, you need to immediately remove the faded flowers, otherwise the second flowering will be delayed for 2-3 weeks and will have to be at the end of September - early October. Floribunda roses are an exception, they are self-cleaning - after the second flowering, the inflorescence does not need to be cut off so as not to provoke a third one, which still will not come for climatic reasons, but the shoots will not have time to ripen by winter.
For the winter shelter, roses need to be prepared with agricultural technology: nitrogen fertilizers can be applied only until mid-July. In July - August, active growth of shoots begins. Fatty shoots that do not bear flowers, but are renewal shoots, must be cut in half, limiting growth, to create the base of the bush.
Autumn pruning is not basic, but mandatory. If the roses are not cut for the winter, the second-order shoots, not covered with snow, will freeze in winter. Before sheltering, it is imperative to remove the foliage, even if the rose garden is large and the process turns out to be very laborious. It is not only about the spread of diseases, but also about the general condition of plants.
In the process of hiding roses, the main event is hilling, for which it is best to use the garden soil prepared in advance. You can mix it with peat or sawdust, but in pure form, these materials for shelter will not work because of their moisture capacity. From above, the shoots are covered with spruce branches, dry leaves, brushwood without rotting parts.
But now is the time for the roses to open. Where there is no snow anymore, you can remove the upper shelter, and leave the dullness until the moment the ground thaws. If the bush is easily pulled out of the ground, it is dead and can be thrown away. The main pruning is carried out in the spring. All roses are heavily cut, except for scrubs, climbing, park. Scars in case of strong pruning will take a long time to recover. After cutting and drying the sections, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment with copper and soap preparations.
Further care consists in correct and timely feeding, which can be started with setting the temperature to + 10 ° (at lower assimilation does not occur). In cold weather foliar top dressing is recommended. Spring watering with Kornevin is very effective, which not only strengthens the root system, but also stimulates the growth of numerous shoots.
If root growth appears, it must be removed at the very base, exposing part of the root system. But the appearance of overgrowth can be minimized if you know about the reasons for its appearance:
- Poor soil compaction during planting.
- Bulging of the soil and exposure of the root collar.
- Grafting on a vigorous rootstock of a miniature or polyanthus rose.
- Poor overwintering and strong pruning of the aerial part.
In general, the rose is a high-energy crop, responsive to care and feeding. Loves deep digging of soil twice a year - in spring and autumn. With good care, it can live long. The "retirement age" of hybrid tea roses comes at 10 years, Floribunda - at 15, and species and roses close to them are often able to survive the owners and grow for more than 60 years. Therefore, if you want to inherit the garden, choose long-lived species.