Berlin Botanical Garden

Berlin Botanical Garden
Berlin Botanical Garden

Video: Berlin Botanical Garden

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Video: Exposé #08: visit the Berlin botanical garden with us. 2023, January
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Bromeliads
Bromeliads

Bromeliads

The Berlin Botanical Garden has nearly five centuries of history. During his long life, he moved from place to place twice. For the first time, the botanical garden was mentioned in 1573 and at that time it played a purely utilitarian role - the cultivation of fruit and vegetable plants. In its place is now the Lustgarten city park. In 1679, it changed its location, but it remained a court source of fruits and vegetables, and a few rare plants. Its scientific development begins in 1809, when the botanist Carl Ludwig Willdenow achieved the transfer of the garden to the University of Berlin. Since 1888, with the laying of the arboretum, the garden has been transferred to a new, its modern place in the town of Dahlem, and another city park remains in the old place.Currently, the botanical garden is a structural division of the Free University of Berlin.

It is simply impossible to tell about this botanical oasis in one small article. Its area is about 43 hectares, and the collection has 22 thousand species and is currently the largest in Germany. Therefore, in this article we will pay attention to the greenhouses and the botanical museum.

Humid tropics
Humid tropics

Humid tropics

The first greenhouses were built at the beginning of the 20th century (for example, a large tropical greenhouse was built from 1905 to 1907). And then the complex gradually grew, was completed, and now it is a multi-level structure, which is very difficult to photograph in its entirety.

Funding for the maintenance of this expensive facility is provided not only by the state. There are guided tours, a visit to the garden costs about 5 euros. Many plants have "chefs" who pay for their maintenance, next to the plant there is a sign where the name of the "benefactor" is mentioned. This happiness costs from 250 to 1500 euros, depending on the rarity, capriciousness and size of the ward.

One of the greenhouses
One of the greenhouses

One of the greenhouses

Greenhouses have letter numbering and a name that reflects the species composition of plants growing in them. Naturally, the numbering begins with a large tropical greenhouse. Further there are sections of begonias, tropical cultivated plants, where I stayed for quite a long time, orchids and aroids, plants of the humid tropics, tropical and subtropical ferns, bromeliads, succulents of Africa, cacti and other succulents of America, plants of South Africa, plants of hot prairies, flora of Australia and New Zealand, camellias and azaleas, aquatic plants, Mediterranean species and plants of the Canary Islands. In 2010, the palm greenhouse was inaugurated.

Cactus
Cactus

Cactus

Of course, there are plants that are a source of pride and admiration for the staff and the botanical community. For example, the old-timers of the garden are one of the ferns, which was brought back from the old Botanical Garden, bamboo, which reaches 25 m in height and grows by 30 cm per day. You can come for two days in a row on an excursion and see this miracle of the plant world. Special reverence among the staff and advanced copy of the nerds is Wollemi noble (Wollemia nobilis) in the section of the Australian flora. It was discovered as a species only in 1994, and before that it was believed that only dinosaurs admired it, and we got only fossilized prints.

What caught my attention in the greenhouses? Naturally medicinal and aromatic plants. Although everyone will find a lot of interesting things here, depending on their preferences.

In the section of African succulents, aloe blossoms and spikes. In addition to purely exotic and completely decorative species, my attention was attracted by specimens that are grown to obtain medicinal raw materials, first of all, this is Socotrian aloe, which during special expeditions was harvested by the Aesculapians of Alexander the Great before his grandiose campaigns for the preparation of wound healing agents. In addition, both aloe real and awesome aloe with spectacular thorns on the leaves are presented.

Socotrian aloe
Socotrian aloe

Socotrian aloe

Scarlet blooms
Scarlet blooms

Scarlet blooms

The exposition of useful tropical plants is very interesting. In addition to purely domestic enthusiasm for fruiting coffee and cocoa, various types of cinnamon were presented. In addition to the main ones - Ceylon cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon, which are of global importance in the spice market, one could get acquainted, for example, with laurel cinnamon, which is used as a spice only in Indochina countries, and white cinnamon, which even belongs to another botanical genus, but used similarly to members of the genus Cinnamonum.

White cinnamon
White cinnamon

White cinnamon

White cinnamon
White cinnamon

White cinnamon

The same can be said about alpinias. Galgant, as it is also called, is a herb and is used as a cheaper substitute for ginger. Gourmets and culinary specialists put it lower, but in almost all countries of Southeast Asia, rhizomes can be found on the market. In addition, alpinia is used as a medicinal plant in traditional medicine in these countries for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and as a general tonic. There are many types of alpinia and most of them are used locally.

Alpinia
Alpinia

Alpinia

Alpinia
Alpinia

Alpinia

Vetiver is also located in this section of useful tropical plants. For fans of French perfumery, it is better known as vetiver. This cereal is widely grown to produce a viscous and highly breathable essential oil. The essential oil of vetiver is obtained by steam distillation of the roots for a day or more, and the roots are pre-dried and stored for quite a long time. Such storage significantly improves the quality of the essential oil. The aroma of vetiver belongs to fixative - that is, it not only lasts a long time itself, but also retains other odors.

Vetiver
Vetiver

Vetiver

Bigardia
Bigardia

Bigardia

Few people pay attention to a gnarled tree that looks like a tangerine with its small fruits. And yet this is a bigardia, or an orange. Of course, it is not something exotic in subtropical countries, but here it can only grow in greenhouses. This plant is a record holder - three types of essential oil, different in aroma, pharmacological action and cost, are obtained from it: from flowers - neroli oil, from fruits - bitter orange oil, from leaves - petitgrain oil. Therefore, when you come to the pharmacy, you will immediately imagine what the listed oils are made of.

Coffee
Coffee

Coffee

Camellia
Camellia

Camellia

In the orchid department, mostly Nepentes bloomed. Huge predatory jugs coquettishly dangled at different ends of the greenhouse, but there were almost no blooming orchids, you can see their time had not come.

Nepenthes ventricosa
Nepenthes ventricosa

Nepenthes ventricosa

Among the plants in America, the soap tree stood out for its size and large label. Its leaves and bark were used by the Indians of Central and South America as a detergent. The high content of saponins allowed it to be used as a substitute for soap and detergent.

Soapberry
Soapberry

Soapberry

Cocoa
Cocoa

Cocoa

The Botanical Museum deserves special delight. It was opened back in 1905 and since then has been improving its expositions taking into account modern means, up to multimedia stands. Unlike the greenhouse, the structures of which were almost not damaged by the bombing, the museum building was very badly damaged and the restoration continued until the 80s of the last century. Maybe his expositions are not so interesting for a specialist, but as a teacher his stands delighted me. Here you can conduct classes for students and biology lessons for schoolchildren (which is actually being done). Everything that may be needed to convey to the younger generation the basics of botanical taxonomy, geobotany, paleobotany, plant anatomy and morphology. Themed stands on the use of plants are especially attractive: for example,coffee varieties or cocoa cultivation, and then in the greenhouse you can see live cocoa trees with fruits hanging right on the trunk. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. The museum has a huge library, collected over several centuries, and a herbarium.

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Image
Image
Image
Coffee exposition
Coffee exposition

Coffee exposition

And this is just a very quick look at the greenhouses of the Berlin Botanical Gardens and the museum. But there is still a fabulously beautiful park, about which there is not enough space in 10 articles. Moreover, everyone has their own opinion, and surely someone will pay attention to completely different plants, so when visiting Berlin, you should break away from contemplation of artistic values ​​for at least one day and come to a meeting with the best artist and architect of all time - nature.

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