Botanical Garden Of Medicinal Plants Of The Moscow Medical Academy Named After I.M. Sechenov

Botanical Garden Of Medicinal Plants Of The Moscow Medical Academy Named After I.M. Sechenov
Botanical Garden Of Medicinal Plants Of The Moscow Medical Academy Named After I.M. Sechenov
Video: Botanical Garden Of Medicinal Plants Of The Moscow Medical Academy Named After I.M. Sechenov
Video: Dr Surinder Soond (Sechenov University): My Life and Research at Sechenov University 2023, February
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The Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, owned by the First Moscow Medical University, celebrated its 65th anniversary in autumn 2011. However, the garden celebrates all anniversaries twice. Since the order on the formation of the garden was issued in November, no real work on the ground has already been carried out. And in the spring of 1947, on the left bank of the Moskva River, work began on laying a garden. Therefore, it is this time that current employees consider the date of birth of the garden. Over the years, several thousand students of the Faculty of Pharmacy have undergone practical training there. Initially, the garden belonged to the Moscow Pharmaceutical Institute, which was an independent educational institution until 1958. After that, the Pharmaceutical Institute was incorporated into the First Moscow Medical Institute named after I.M. Sechenov as a faculty.

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The garden project was developed by Boris Matveevich Griner with the participation of the famous botanist-florist Vladimir Nikolaevich Voroshilov. The Botanical Garden was created for the practice of students in botany and pharmacognosy, as well as a base for scientific work of employees and students in the field of research of medicinal plants. To create a garden, the institute was allocated on a lease basis a plot of land about 5 hectares on the left bank of the Moskva River opposite Poklonnaya Gora, located between the lines of Okruzhnaya Smolensk direction and the Belorussian railways. Later he became the property of the institute. The institute was supposed to create a garden in this place in the form of a small park massif, which plays not only the role of a scientific base, but is also a worthy part of the green dress of the capital.

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The allotted area was a wasteland where vegetable gardens were located in places. I had to start with clearing the area and leveling the profile. These were difficult post-war years, and all work was done by hand.

As far as the garden staff knows, its layout is unique. Curtains of various species are grouped into quarters (sectors), including plants with the same medicinal effect (cardiovascular, hemostatic, vitamin, aromatic, etc.); initially, the placement of herbaceous species of the same pharmacological action was planned next to woody plants. But the experience of the first two years showed that caring for them is extremely difficult, in this regard, herbaceous plants were taken to a special area, planned in the form of rectangular plots. After several massive subbotniks, students and staff of the institute cleared and dug up the territory, built greenhouses and planted the first trees and bushes. Currently, these plantings form picturesque groups of tall birches, lindens, chestnuts, etc.trees. At the same time, seeds of some medicinal plants were sown, but in the first year, according to T.I. Toltsman, most of the territory was sown with calendula, which, during flowering, formed a sea of ​​golden flowers.

Flowerbeds at home
Flowerbeds at home

Flowerbeds at home

May in the garden
May in the garden

May in the garden

Fragrant violet
Fragrant violet

Fragrant violet

The park is planned in a landscape style, with the placement of trees and shrubs in clumps of different numbers of specimens of the same species, or individual large plants (tapeworms). There are not many mixed curtains. The clumps are separated by glades planted with meadow grass forming a lawn. At present, part of the originally planted woody plants has fallen out for various reasons, and many species are represented by single specimens. Plantings of flowering perennials (irises, lilies, asparagus, daylilies, helenium, monarda, oriental poppy and others) were placed in groups on the lawn. Some of these plantings have survived to this day.

Forest beech in autumn
Forest beech in autumn

Forest beech in autumn

Stalked hydrangea
Stalked hydrangea

Stalked hydrangea

Plum
Plum

Plum

Curved paths ran between the curtains, corresponding to the style of the parkland. Only in the center there is a straight asphalt path, which, unfortunately, violates the style of the park. In addition to the arboretum, a training nursery, a seedling school, hotbeds and a greenhouse for southern plants were planned and then equipped, which existed until 1984. In the early years of the garden's existence, the exchange of plants with other botanical gardens in Moscow and the acquisition of seedlings from horticultural farms were insignificant, since during the war years, work on growing seedlings practically ceased. Thus, the garden collection was created almost exclusively from its own planting material.

Abelia korean
Abelia korean

Abelia korean

Hydrangea Bretschneider
Hydrangea Bretschneider

Hydrangea Bretschneider

Catalpa bignoniform
Catalpa bignoniform

Catalpa bignoniform

Until now, the collection of the garden is constantly expanding both at the expense of plants brought from expeditions by the staff of the garden and the institute and by students, and at the expense of plants grown from seeds and received in exchange with other gardens and amateurs. On the systematic site, the Lobel hellebore bushes have been preserved, brought from the Prioksko-Terrasny Reserve back in 1952. The garden's collection includes about 20 species of rare and endangered plants listed in the Red Book of Russia of the latest edition, and species from the Red Data Books of Moscow and the Moscow Region, several species listed in the International Red Book. Thanks to its rich collection of medicinal and rare plants, our botanical garden is registered in the International Directory of the World's Botanical Gardens, published by UNESCO.The Botanical Garden is a member of the International Union of Botanical Gardens and exchanges seeds with numerous botanical gardens of the CIS and far abroad.

Crimean peony
Crimean peony

Crimean peony

Thin-leaved peony
Thin-leaved peony

Thin-leaved peony

Peony Maryin root
Peony Maryin root

Peony Maryin root

Currently, the University Botanical Garden consists of an arboretum, a systematic (pharmacopoeial) site, a nursery school, experimental sites and flower beds. On the territory of the garden there is a laboratory building with classrooms.

The low relief position of the garden (in the floodplain of the river) causes a greater, in comparison with the higher parts of the city, recurrence of autumn and winter frosts.It can be said that the microclimate in the garden is characterized by large temperature differences compared to the surrounding territories. In winter, cold air stagnates in the garden, and the temperature reaches the lower mark announced according to the forecast of the hydrometeorological center. The collection of the garden was especially damaged in the frosty winter of 1978/79, when the absolute minimum winter temperature of -43º was observed in Moscow. In summer, on the contrary, the garden warms up much more, which is facilitated by the fact that dense vegetation holds the wind. As a result, some plants that require high summer temperatures bear fruit in the garden, such as walnuts and rock nuts, two types of apricots, magnolia cobus.

The beginning of flowering of the first spring plant, Voronov's snowdrop, falls on April 1 on average. Alder and hazel species bloom at the same time. In early May, apricots and magnolia kobus bloom, and then an orchard.

Snowdrop Voronov
Snowdrop Voronov

Snowdrop Voronov

Spring adonis
Spring adonis

Spring adonis

Magnolia Cobus in April
Magnolia Cobus in April

Magnolia Cobus in April

Until recently, until a young tree blossomed in the Pharmaceutical Garden, our magnolia was the only flowering tree of this species in Moscow, where in all botanical gardens there are only 7 trees of different ages. Our tree, which has been blooming profusely for over 25 years, is absolutely unique and is the pride of the garden. In 2005, for the first time, it gave ripe seeds, which, unfortunately, did not sprout then. Several times during this time we managed to get seedlings, but they never wintered.

Magnolia cobus
Magnolia cobus

Magnolia cobus

Magnolia cobus
Magnolia cobus

Magnolia cobus

Magnolia cobus, fruit
Magnolia cobus, fruit

Magnolia cobus, fruit

Since the establishment of the garden, great changes have taken place in the use of medicinal plants, and many plants for various reasons fell out of use in official medicine, but survived in our collection.

Thus, the garden's collection includes plants studied by students under the programs of the Departments of Botany and Pharmacognosy; plants used in medicine of past years, as well as currently used in homeopathy, folk medicine and herbal medicine, but not entered in the state register. The botanical garden also has a collection of ornamental plants and wild-growing food plants, which is related to the scientific interests of the garden's employees.

The total number of woody species belonging to 50 families, 122 genera reaches 290, some of them have different varieties and forms. The types of herbaceous plants are less amenable to accounting, since the sowing of annual and biennial plants is carried out according to the needs of departments, and ornamental plants, depending on the availability of seeds. In addition, a significant number of native herbaceous plants grow in the garden without human assistance. Therefore, it is difficult to indicate the exact number of species, but they belong to 77 families.

The mushroom flora of the garden is extensive and interesting. 37 species of edible mushrooms grow on our territory, among them such interesting ones as giant langermania, the maximum weight of which was 7.5 kg, motley umbrellas, sulfur-yellow tinder fungus. Among our mushrooms there are even two species listed in the Red Book of the Moscow Region.

Langermany is giant
Langermany is giant

Langermany is giant

Veselka
Veselka

Veselka

Chaga
Chaga

Chaga

Winter mushroom
Winter mushroom

Winter mushroom

Tinder fungus sulfur-yellow
Tinder fungus sulfur-yellow

Tinder fungus sulfur-yellow

Phlebia
Phlebia

Phlebia

Oyster mushroom
Oyster mushroom

Oyster mushroom

There are plants in the garden that in other gardens do not reach the same size as ours, and are considered the most beautiful in the tacit competition of botanical gardens. These, in addition to magnolias, include yews, which bore especially abundant fruit this year. Under natural conditions, yew can live up to 2-3 thousand years and is listed in the international Red Book.

Yew berry
Yew berry

Yew berry

The pedunculate hydrangea, which climbs the trees, blooms magnificently and annually, which has grown to at least 6 meters in our country. Among our 18 species of lianas, grapes and woodworms, which completely cover tall trees, are especially splendid. They bear fruit successfully, not everyone succeeds. Two beautifully flowering shrubs have also reached an unusually large size for Moscow - European forsythia, which adorns the garden with its yellow flowers in early spring, and the pleasant colquitia blooming in June. Both plants are grown from seed. The collection of nuts includes almost all species that can be grown in Moscow, including the fruiting walnut tree. Especially interesting is the hybrid Lancaster nut, which is stable in the conditions of Moscow, and gives large and very tasty nuts, moreover, without internal partitions.Our garden is doing a great job of distributing this plant among gardeners in the Moscow region, who have already received their first harvest.

Catayan walnut
Catayan walnut

Catayan walnut

Heart-shaped walnut
Heart-shaped walnut

Heart-shaped walnut

Butternut
Butternut

Butternut

Rock walnut
Rock walnut

Rock walnut

Bear nut
Bear nut

Bear nut

Lancaster walnut
Lancaster walnut

Lancaster walnut

Lancaster walnut
Lancaster walnut

Lancaster walnut

In addition to academic work in the garden, a lot of educational work is carried out among doctors and the population. Our employees are actively working in the Moscow branch of the Russian Phytotherapeutic Society, whose members regularly visit the garden on excursions. For more than 20 years, on the basis of mutual assistance, the garden has been cooperating with the Nature Conservation Society and Moscow Flower Growers. The articles of our employees regularly appear in various and periodicals, and quite often TV people are filming with us.

Fabulous Goblin - keeper of the garden
Fabulous Goblin - keeper of the garden

Fabulous Goblin - keeper of the garden

Our garden went down in the history of science as a place where the last bastion of genetics was preserved. Under the leadership of the prominent geneticist V. Sakharov, who worked in the garden, work was carried out here on plant polyploidy, and the Sakharov orange calendula, which has no equal to this day, was bred, the first inflorescences of which have a diameter of 9-12 cm, and Bolshevik buckwheat, with grains twice larger than usual. In memory of Sakharov, the Academy of Sciences annually holds Sakharov Readings, in which our employees traditionally take part.

There have been great changes in the garden in recent years. For the first time in a long time, new working hands appeared, young specialists and workers came to the garden. This year, a new fence was built, a demonstration site for students was re-planned and prepared for planting, arboretum areas were cleared of dead wood, new flower beds and a rock garden appeared.

All this taken together gives hope that the garden will again take its rightful place among similar institutions in our capital. Gardens usually outlive their creators and serve as a long memory for them, even when the names of the first creators are forgotten. The garden staff hope that our garden will also celebrate many more “round” anniversaries and will be a decoration of Moscow and the pride of the University for a long time.

New demo site
New demo site

New demo site

Fragment of rock garden
Fragment of rock garden

Fragment of rock garden

Spring cleaning by students
Spring cleaning by students

Spring cleaning by students

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