Garden Of The Bible Museum In Amsterdam

Garden Of The Bible Museum In Amsterdam
Garden Of The Bible Museum In Amsterdam
Video: Garden Of The Bible Museum In Amsterdam
Video: Мария Тиника. Зачем нужны деревья в городе и причем здесь карты 2023, February
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On one of the central canals of Amsterdam, in two old houses, there is a unique Bible Museum. The main exposition of the museum is a collection of Bibles and other religious subjects, including the oldest copy of the Holy Book, printed in the Netherlands in 1477, as well as its first edition in Dutch. But our goal was what is hidden behind the majestic facade of the museum - the secret garden of the Hortus Coclusus, one of the most mysterious in Amsterdam.

Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Bible Museum in Amsterdam

The museum itself, organized in 1852, is already 160 years old. Walking inside the high porch, you can see the old interiors of the rich house. Once owned by the timber merchant and passionate collector Yakov Kromkhurt, he lived not without luxury. In those days, instead of numbers on houses, some indication of the owner's occupation was hung out. The curved stone legs on the pediment of this building imply a play on words and indicate his surname, which means “bent tree” in Dutch. The house has preserved the original ceiling painted by the famous artist Jacob de Wit. The interior of the kitchen on the ground floor was created in 1622 by the Dutch architect Philip Wingburn. She looks even more interesting these days.

Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Walking along the corridor between the kitchen and a small living room with a stove, decorated with magnificent cast iron, the visitor sees a quiet green shelter in the doorway. By local standards, it is considered large, but in fact it is a small cozy fenced garden, sandwiched from the sides by the same tiny neighboring estates. Not many of our contemporaries have seen it yet. Renovated only in 2009 by the famous Dutch landscape architect Jan van der Horst, it is sustained in its historical concept. In the 19th century, when it was founded, the gardens were dominated by a regular, parterre style, which was recommended for estates along the canals of Amsterdam.

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

The garden is divided into three parts. Its formal outlines are defined by the clipped yew hedges surrounding the central third and the geometric design of the reservoir. Water here, as in many biblical stories, plays one of the key roles. It fills two raised reservoirs, from which it falls into two symmetrical reservoirs lowered below. Walking up the steps, the visitor is like "walking on water", and this is an allusion to the passage of the Israelis across the Red Sea.

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

The center of the garden is occupied by the sinister sculptural group "Apocalypse" by Martin van der Loo, created especially for this renovated garden. The tablet with the words from the Bible: "I am the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end …" (Revelation 1: 1-8) is not accidentally installed at the yew hedge. Yew in Christian symbolism means sorrow, but at the same time - immortality, resurrection.

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam
Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

Garden of the Bible Museum in Amsterdam

The sculptural group is built in the form of a Parthenon with seven marble columns of different shades. The vertical repeated many times in the columns serves as a symbol of the union of the upper and lower worlds. She supports seven heads, reminiscent of Dürer's apocalyptic beast - a creature from the visions of St. John the Theologian: “And I stood on the sand of the sea, and saw an animal with seven heads and ten horns emerging from the sea …”. But the symbols of human sins and the threat of the apocalypse, mossy from time, do not look so frightening, leaving hope for salvation and the infinity of the universe.

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In the farthest part of the garden is a sculpture of the Virgin Mary, entwined with a fragrant musky rose. A brick wall that serves as a fence is covered with a mosaic of carved hop foliage, at the foot of which terracotta amphorae huddle with a hint of intoxicating drink. Somewhere in the interpretation of the Bible it is said that the Jews captured by the Babylonians, thanks to the beer made from hops, were saved from leprosy.

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There are no random plants here, they all descended from the pages of Scripture. And, of course, this is only part of the biblical flora, because the climate of Holland is much more severe than the distant Palestinians. In addition, it is estimated that about 120 plants are mentioned in the main book of humanity. Some of them are the most important food crops, others are wild species of the holy land, and still others are aromatic and Christian ceremonial plants. In the garden next to each is a tablet with lines referring to biblical sources. But if you try to understand them with the Bible in hand, then you will be convinced of the complex intricacies of religious texts. Today's Bible scholars have no doubt that at least 4 representatives of different eras wrote it. Over time, the life of people and the surrounding flora changed. And the translators did not always manage to correctly grasp the meaning of the ancient texts,sometimes mentioning unfamiliar vegetation, instead of which local analogues were often selected. For this reason, the same biblical legend can tell about completely different plants. So, there is still no single idea of ​​what the crown of thorns of Jesus Christ was made of or the cross on which he was crucified. It is believed that the paradise fruit of knowledge is not an apple at all, but a fig tree, more common in the Holy Land, a fig. At the same time, the mulberry was also called the fig tree. Anyway, let's walk through the garden and read the messages, not from the point of view of botany, but from the point of view of faith. Faith clothed in nature.from which the crown of thorns of Jesus Christ was made or the cross on which he was crucified. It is believed that the paradise fruit of knowledge is not an apple at all, but a fig tree, more common in the Holy Land, a fig. At the same time, the mulberry was also called the fig tree. Anyway, let's walk through the garden and read the messages, not from the point of view of botany, but from the point of view of faith. Faith clothed in nature.from which the crown of thorns of Jesus Christ was made or the cross on which he was crucified. It is believed that the paradise fruit of knowledge is not an apple at all, but a fig tree, more common in the Holy Land, a fig. At the same time, the mulberry was also called the fig tree. Anyway, let's walk through the garden and read the messages, not from the point of view of botany, but from the point of view of faith. Faith clothed in nature.

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Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum)

Then Judas, who betrayed Him, seeing that he was condemned, and repented, (…)

Saying: I sinned, betraying innocent blood (…)

he went out, went and hanged himself. (Matthew 27: 3-6)

The Judas tree (European cercis, or ordinary) became so called after Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Christ, hanged himself on it, and its white flowers then turned pink. By the way, according to other versions of the legend, he hanged himself on an aspen, which is why its foliage still trembles with fear, and maybe on an elder or mountain ash.

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Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis)

I saw the formidable wicked, expanding like a

rooted, many - branched tree.

(Psalm of David 37:35)

Oleander (Nerium oleander)

Listen to me, pious children, and grow like a rose

growing in a field with a stream …

(Book of the Wisdom of Jesus, son of Sirach 39: 16-18)

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Mulberry (Morus alba, Morus niger)

… if you had faith the size of a grain of mustard

and said to this fig tree:

"Pluck out and be transplanted into the sea,"

then it would obey you.

(Luke 17: 5-6)

Acacia (Acacia tortilis)

And he made an altar of incense

of acacia wood …

(Exodus 37:25)

Of course, this garden could not do without acacia, the Old Testament shittim tree. The tabernacle, or the tent of revelation, was made of acacias - a portable altar that the ancient Israelites, after their expulsion from Egypt, wore, wandering in the desert with Moses. But do not think that this is a real African Acacia tortilis - it is not cold-resistant, does not even withstand low positive temperatures, therefore, in this garden, it is, of course, replaced by robinia.

Tabernacle model
Tabernacle model

Tabernacle model

As for the tabernacle, the Bible Museum has a 19th century reconstruction created exclusively from materials specified in the Bible - goat hair, sand from the Sinai Desert, genuine archaeological artifacts.

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Ivy (Hedera helix)

… and at the feast of Dionysus, the

Jews were forced to walk in ivy wreaths

in a solemn procession in honor of Dionysus.

(2nd Maccabees 6: 7)

Rose (Rosa moschata)

I am the daffodil of Saron, lily of the valleys!

(In another interpretation:

I am the rose of Saron, lily of the valleys!)

(Song of Solomon 2: 1)

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Olive (Olea europaea)

The dove returned to him

in the evening;

and, behold, a fresh oil leaf

in his mouth … (Genesis 8:11)

Lily (Lilium candidum)

I will be the dew to Israel;

it will bloom like a lily …

(Hosea 14: 5)

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Reed (Butomus umbellatus) - Umbelliferae

And behold, seven cows came out of the river, good-looking and fat in flesh, and grazed in the reeds.

(Genesis 41: 2)

Calamus (Acorus calamus)

Take for yourself the best fragrant substances:

gravity myrrh (…), fragrant cinnamon (…), fragrant cane (…), cassia (….)

And olive oil (…).

And make of this ointment for the holy anointing, a

composite color …”(Exodus 30: 23-25)

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Small periwinkle (Vinca minor)

To the Virgin, betrothed to her husband, named Joseph, (…) the name of the Virgin: Mary.

(Luke 1:27)

Nymphea, water lily (Nymphea sp.)

And in the narthex the crowns at the top of the pillars

are made like a lily, four cubits …"

(1 Kings 7:19)

The Latin name periwinkle vinca means to twine, in Christianity it is a symbol of eternal love and eternal memory.

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Fragrant rue (Ruta graveolens)

But woe to you, Pharisees, for you tithe mint, rue and all kinds of vegetables, and do not rejoice about judgment and the love of God …

(Luke 11:42)

Acanthus (Acanthus syriacus)

They roar between the bushes, huddle under the thorns.

(Job 30: 7)

In biblical texts, thorns are any thorny plants. Here, acanthus prickly is chosen, which replaces the Syrian, which grows in the Holy Land. The term "all kinds of vegetables" in the Old Testament means not only vegetables that are familiar to our understanding, but also any plants that produce leaves from underground roots or rhizomes, as opposed to trees that release leaves from above-ground stems or trunks. "And he said to Adam, because you listened to your wife's voice and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, saying: do not eat of it, cursed is the land for you; with sorrow you will eat from it all the days of your life … thorns and she will bring forth thistles for you; and you will eat the grass of the field … "(Genesis 3: 17-18)

The interpretation says that before that, according to the plot of Genesis, the plants did not have protection. Roses had no thorns, cacti had no thorns, nettles did not sting. Foxglove, oleander and cotton wool could be eaten without harm to health. All the trees bore fruit, and will become so again after the new coming of Christ.

Digitalis
Digitalis

Digitalis

Digitalis
Digitalis

Digitalis

There is an opinion that the Latin name of the digitalis digitalis in ancient times meant "extinct, fossil, as if existing before the great flood mentioned in the Bible."

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Grapes (Vitis vinifera)

And they came to the valley of Eshol, and there they cut off a vine branch and with one cluster of berries, and two men carried it on a pole; (they also took pomegranate apples and figs).

This place was called the Valley of Eshol *, because of the bunch of grapes that the children of Israel cut there. (Book of numbers, 13:24)

* Grape brush.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum)

Along the hem, make apples from threads of blue, yagont, purple and scarlet, around the hem; the vertebrae are golden between them in a circle. (Exodus 28:33)

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Fig tree (Ficus carica)

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Apple tree (Malus) The

serpent was more cunning than all the beasts of the field, which the Lord God created.

And the serpent said to his wife, Has God truly said, Do

not eat of any tree in paradise?

(Genesis 3: 1)

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Date (Phoenix dactylifera)

The next day a multitude of people who

came to the feast heard

that Jesus was going to Jerusalem.

They took palm branches, went out to meet him …

(John 11: 12-13)

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