Botanical Garden Of Perm University

Botanical Garden Of Perm University
Botanical Garden Of Perm University

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Perm University and Botanical Garden
Perm University and Botanical Garden

Perm University and Botanical Garden

The botanical garden appeared in Perm thanks to the desire and capabilities of the wealthy industrialist N.V. Meshkov, a successful shipping company, known among his contemporaries for his grandiose charity work. In memory of his mother, he built charitable institutions within the city. In the place where the botanical garden is located today, next to the railway station, a large philanthropist decided to arrange for the rest of the townspeople "People's Garden". In 1916, he donated this site to the city, for the improvement of which he specially invited the famous landscape architect E.A. Mayer. According to the project, the garden should be fenced off with a lattice, along which city streets with linden alleys should be arranged. The main decoration of the garden was to be geometrically regular lawns, bordered by colorful ridges.The central place in it was given to representatives of the local flora - more than 50 species, as well as other tree and shrub species and resistant decorative perennials, of which there are more than 70 species.

E.A. Mayer writes: “… here we can plant only those breeds that come from areas of the same climate as Perm or even more severe. In experiments on acclimatization, the main role is played by the origin of seeds. The seed of the plant, which is supposed to be acclimatized, must first of all be obtained from the area of ​​its natural growth, the climate of which is closest to the one under consideration”[cit. Mayer, 1916, p. 3].

A.G. Genkel (1872-1927)
A.G. Genkel (1872-1927)

A.G. Genkel (1872-1927)

The architect could not imagine a Botanical Garden without a large swimming pool; in the corners of the garden it was planned to arrange playgrounds, a rocky garden for growing alpine plants, as well as build a greenhouse, a gardener's house and a vegetable garden. But it was not immediately possible to implement this plan, the city suffered the consequences of the revolution and the civil war, and then the hungry 1920s, when vegetable gardens were planted everywhere.

From the day of its foundation (1922) to the present day, the Botanical Garden bears the name of the first director, Professor A.G. Genkel, who headed the department of plant morphology and taxonomy at the Perm branch of the Imperial Petrograd University (now the Perm State National Research University).

Professor A.G. Genkel initiated the creation of collections of living plants, intended primarily for students to study botanical disciplines at the departments of plant morphology and taxonomy, plant physiology, pharmacology and pharmacognosy. He himself had to supervise the arrangement of a wasteland with an area of ​​2 hectares, located in front of the facade of the main university building. In a swampy area littered with construction waste and waste from raw materials from a tannery, A.G. Genkel founded an arboretum, collection sites and an arboretum were laid out. To replenish the collections, he organized the collection of seeds of wild and cultivated plants. In January 1927, Perm University was badly damaged by fire. The director personally took part in extinguishing the fire, saved plants in 30-degree frost,from which he fell seriously ill and his life tragically ended at the age of 54.

Rocky hill
Rocky hill

Rocky hill

Rocky hill
Rocky hill

Rocky hill

In subsequent years, the directors of the Botanical Garden were such famous scientists as D.A. Sabinin, V.I. Baranov and others. Since 1930, during the period when E.A. Pavsky, activity on the selection of a stable assortment of fruit and berry crops suitable for growing in the northern regions revived, scientific laboratories were created, a library and a museum were opened. For 6 years, from 1931 to 1936, the garden donated about 8 thousand fruit and ornamental plants to schools, kindergartens, collective and state farms of the Urals. At that time, the dendrological collection of the botanical garden included 105 species, many of which, unfortunately, were later lost.

Barberry Thunberg Aurea
Barberry Thunberg Aurea

Barberry Thunberg Aurea

Nippon cinquefoil
Nippon cinquefoil

Nippon cinquefoil

Geranium on the slide
Geranium on the slide

Geranium on the slide

Currently, the Botanical Garden. A.G. Genkel is a scientific, educational, cultural and educational center of the Western Urals. Since 1989, it has been classified as a natural monument of regional significance. Since 1999, the director of the garden is an energetic scientist, candidate of biological sciences Sergei Anatolyevich Shumikhin, who not only organizes all the activities of the Botanical Garden, conducts scientific research, but also finds time to collect, plant plants and decorate landscape areas.

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Ecological trail with fragments of model phytocenoses of

temperate and adjacent climatic zones:

1 - Ephemeroids; 2 - Lianas; 3 - Flat rockery; 4 - Rock garden; 5 - Shadow garden;

6 - Water body and coastal aquatic vegetation; 7 - Swamp; 8 - biological clock;

9 - Exposition of Far Eastern flora; 10 - Plant species of the Red Data Book of Russia

and Perm Territory; 11 - Mixborder of continuous flowering mesophytes

Today the botanical garden in Perm covers an area of ​​1.97 hectares, surrounded by a dense ring of university buildings and city buildings. More than 3.5 thousand species of plants are grown here, among which there are a lot of varieties and various decorative forms. The garden exchanges seeds annually with 80 foreign botanical gardens.

An ecological path has been created on the territory of the Botanical Garden, fragments of model phytocenoses of the Far Eastern flora and dark coniferous forest have been arranged. A miniature peat bog looks great, where blueberries, lingonberries, cranberries, cloudberries, wild rosemary, podbele (or andromeda), dwarf willows and various mosses grow. The marsh calla, a three-leafed watch, some ferns and orchids, for example, a heart-shaped cache, a lady's slipper, are planted in conditions of constant moisture.

Ecological trail
Ecological trail

Ecological trail

Conifers
Conifers

Conifers

Much effort is devoted to maintaining the collection of rare and protected plants. In 2007, 35 plant species belonging to 22 families were collected from the Red Book, and in 2012 there were already 100 species. According to the Red Data Book of the Perm Territory (2008), 80 plant species are subject to special protection on the territory of the Perm Territory, of which 62 are angiosperms (flowering), 6 are ferns, 1 are lycopods, 4 are lichens and 7 are mushrooms. In addition, 133 species of plants growing on the territory of the Perm Territory were marked as requiring special attention to their condition in the natural environment (included in the Appendix to the "Red Book of the Perm Territory"). Students of the Faculty of Biology help in caring for the plantings when they undergo practical training and collect material for term papers and theses.

Fuchs finger-root
Fuchs finger-root

Fuchs finger-root

The exposition “Biological Clock” was created here, “which is designed to demonstrate the daily flowering rhythm of various herbaceous plant species - an important adaptation in the ecology of pollination and biological isolation as a factor of speciation. The movement of flowers, their opening and closing under the influence of the change of day and night are mainly determined by changes in lighting and temperature over time and are a particular case of movement in plants. The flowering of many plants is in a certain dependence on the change of day and night. This phenomenon is called the daily flowering rhythm. The daily flowering rhythm of plants is closely related to the process of pollination. Due to this phenomenon, the flowers of entomophilous plant species are open or bloom at the time of the day when there are those insects that pollinate them.It is customary to distinguish 4 types of daily flowering rhythm: morning, afternoon, evening and night. When naming these types, not the time of day during which the flowers are open is taken into account, but the time of maximum blooming of flowers. The most numerous are plants with morning and afternoon types of flower blooming. This is due to the fact that in most insect pollinated plants, pollination occurs in the morning and afternoon. Flowers with evening and night flowering rhythms are usually pollinated by moths, most often hawk moths "(cited from" Guide … ", S. A. Shumikhin, 2012, pp. 34-35.)The most numerous are plants with morning and afternoon types of flower blooming. This is due to the fact that in most insect pollinated plants, pollination occurs in the morning and afternoon. Flowers with evening and night flowering rhythms are usually pollinated by moths, most often hawk moths "(cited from" Guide … ", S. A. Shumikhin, 2012, pp. 34-35.)The most numerous are plants with morning and afternoon types of flower blooming. This is due to the fact that in most insect pollinated plants, pollination occurs in the morning and afternoon. Flowers with evening and night flowering rhythms are usually pollinated by moths, most often hawk moths "(cited from" Guide … ", S. A. Shumikhin, 2012, pp. 34-35.)

Gazebo in the Japanese garden
Gazebo in the Japanese garden

Gazebo in the Japanese garden

The most beautiful varieties of lilacs 'Madame Lemoine', 'Buffon', 'Marshal Foch', 'Captain Balte', 'Jules Simon', 'Michel Buchner', 'India', 'Paul de Chanel', 'Edward Harding', 'Alice Harding', 'Reaumur', 'Marie Legre', as well as clematis, roses, lilies.

Of the large Far Eastern plants, you should pay attention to Amur velvet (Phellodendron amurense), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica), aralia (Aralia), eleutherococcus senticosus), black cohosh (Cimicifuga), Japanese black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and etc.

The greenhouse collection includes more than 2 thousand varieties, forms and species of plants. It includes the following exhibitions: "Wet Tropics", "Dry Tropics", "Subtropics", "Epiphytes", "Cacti and Succulents". Expositions "Wet Tropics", "Dry Tropics", "Subtropics" - with fragments of the corresponding plant formations. In the greenhouse, the oldest specimen of the Canary date in the Urals, planted in 1896 by Professor A.G. Genkel, surprisingly preserved to this day. There are agaves and cacti, dracaena and araucaria, cyperus, azaleas and orchids, bashful mimosa, nut lotus, insectivorous plants in the collection. In the greenhouse, monsters, figs, feijoa, bananas and pineapples, papaya, citrus fruits, and a coffee tree bloom and bear fruit.

Canary date Photo: S.A. Shumikhin
Canary date Photo: S.A. Shumikhin

Canary date Photo: S.A. Shumikhin

The "Wet Tropics" exposition with an area of ​​321.34 m² is an imitation of a humid tropical forest with corresponding microclimatic features (constant high air temperature and humidity). According to the modern classification of floras, two kingdoms are distinguished in the tropical region: the paleotropics (including almost all of Africa, Southeast Asia and the Oceanic Islands) and the Neotropics (including almost all of South and Central America). This exhibition presents typical plants of the tropical rainforests of the paleotropical and neotropical kingdoms, as well as plants of Australia, which is part of a separate Australian kingdom. Each of these groups has its own set of plants. The conventional boundary between them is water bodies with typical water and coastal water, including mangroves, vegetation, connected by a cascade.The exhibition presents life forms characteristic of the humid tropics: trees, shrubs, lianas, epiphytes and grasses. Supports made of various natural materials were installed for epiphytes and lianas (tree trunks - for epiphytes; special supports filled with fibrous material - for vines) "(cited from" Guide … ", S. A. Shumikhin, 2012, p. 64) …

The "Dry Tropics" exposition covers an area of ​​213.77 m². The area of ​​dry tropics is characterized by a change of two seasons: rainy and dry, therefore, the department has two modes of keeping plants: summer (wet and hot) and winter (drier and cooler). The exposition of this department is also divided into zones of the paleotropics and neotropics, including Australia. Paleotropics occupy a large area here, since the plants of this kingdom are more widely represented in the collection. In general, planting of plants here is less dense than in the humid tropics section, which reflects the specifics of summer green tropical forests. The emphasis in the exposition of the dry tropics is made on the seasonality of phenorhythms and associated vegetation metamorphoses. Particular attention is paid here to the unique flora of the clarified park forests and savannas of Australia "(quoted from the" Guide … ", S.А.Shumikhin, 2012, p. 76).

Lady's slipper hybrid
Lady's slipper hybrid

Lady's slipper hybrid

Exposition of the dry tropics
Exposition of the dry tropics

Exposition of the dry tropics

Dendrobium noble
Dendrobium noble

Dendrobium noble

The “Epiphyte” exposition with an area of ​​79.33 m² is represented by plants of the corresponding life form from the families Araceae, Bromeliaceae, Orchidaceae, Piperaceae, etc. Both elements of autecology and special cases of synecology are demonstrated here: epiphytic, insectivorous and myrmecophilous. Most of the plants of this group need certain conditions: high humidity and constantly high temperature. Epiphytes are located on supports, which are twisted tree trunks, which imitate the natural growth conditions of these species, as well as in hanging pots. The main part of the epiphytes is placed on special mesh supports behind the soil area. Various types of terrestrial orchids, bromeliads, ferns, and peperomia are planted on the ground. In the center of the exposition there is a "lotus" reservoir with a peat bog.Special attention is paid to the demonstration of various kinds of plant adaptations to the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water and light regimes, as well as the specificity of the epiphytic way of life. The exhibition "Insectivorous Plants" is also located here, demonstrating various types of trapping mechanisms. Insectivorousness as an extreme case of the relationship of plants with animals in the tropical regions of the Old and New World often coexists with symbiotic relationships, an example of this is the group of myrmecophytic plants, also presented in the exhibition. Visitors inspect the department because of the glass, which somewhat complicates the perception, so the plants are planted in small groups, but without clear boundaries "(cited from" Guide … ", SA Shumikhin, 2012, p. 86).

“Plants of the subtropical branch with an area of ​​106.08 m² are characterized by a dormant period in winter and corresponding to the natural temperature and humidity conditions. The exposition "Subtropics" is conditionally divided into two parts: the first one presents plants of the Mediterranean climate, the second - plants of humid subtropics. The emphasis is on the decorativeness of the landings. Behind the few trees between the stones of the rock garden, low bushes and dwarf shrubs are planted, which especially emphasizes the nature of the subtropical regions: the heterogeneity of the relief and the presence of mountain ranges. Most of the plants in this branch are deciduous, so the branch is especially decorative in spring, during the flowering period, and in autumn, when the leaves are painted in bright colors. Part of the exposition, represented by large-sized samples,located in the memorial greenhouse of the Botanical Garden. There is also a collection of subtropical fruit and azaleas "(quoted from" Guide … ", S. A. Shumikhin, 2012, p. 120)

Japanese spirea
Japanese spirea

Japanese spirea

Partridge herb (dryad)
Partridge herb (dryad)

Partridge herb (dryad)

To expand the territory of the botanical garden in 1969, the city authorities allocated an additional 25 hectares outside the city, near the village. Naked Cape. There, on the slope of the southern exposure, the main dendrological collection is located. In the forest part of the territory, which occupies an area of ​​about 7 hectares, small fragments of dark coniferous, broad-leaved, small-leaved and mixed forests can be distinguished. In meadow phytocenoses (about 7 hectares), areas of dry and lowland meadows are well expressed. On artificial ponds with an area of ​​about 1 hectare, there are elements of coastal aquatic vegetation.

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