Botanical Drawing - Science And Art

Botanical Drawing - Science And Art
Botanical Drawing - Science And Art
Video: Botanical Drawing - Science And Art
Video: More Botanical Illustration: Sketching the Natural World 2023, February
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"Plants, whose appearance the botanist wants to have captured, must be brought freshly harvested to the artist, and the sooner the better, so that they do not have time to dry, so that the artist can depict them with flowers, roots, seeds, etc., as In this work, artists should be encouraged to ponder how the length and width of each shoot to designate"

(From the instructions to the draftsmen of the Great Northern Expedition of I. Gmelin 1733-1734).

On February 27, 2016 at the Academy of Watercolors and Fine Arts of Sergei Andriyaka in the halls of changing expositions, the grand opening of the exhibition “Botanical Drawing. Science and Art ". A wonderful spring gift for lovers of this rare art form, which consists in a detailed, botanically accurate depiction of plants.

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For a long time, artists have been dealing with the theme of lush bouquets and delicate fragile flowers. The oldest manuscript of the father of botany and pharmacology Dioscorides "On Medicinal Substances", dated to the beginning of the 6th century, contains 435 images of plants and animals made on parchment. Like gardening in general, botanical design began with medicinal herbs. He made plants important for humans recognizable in those days when there was still no taxonomy of plants and their detailed verbal descriptions. Every detail was important - from "top to spine". Since the Middle Ages, Swiss, German, Dutch artists have been successful in this business.

Later, with the advent of botanical nomenclature and the improvement of typography (XVIII century), the urgent need for botanical images of plants seemed to have disappeared. But it was during this period that the prestigious profession of a botanical illustrator emerged. Images of plants were created by artists in painstaking techniques of watercolors and engravings; they adorned fundamental botanical works, which sometimes constituted the prestige of entire states.

In Russia, interest in botanical drawing appeared during the reign of Anna Ioanovna, but its heyday is associated with the era of Catherine the Great - a comprehensively enlightened empress.

Sofia Matveeva. Lady's slipper Paphiopedilum Rothschildianum
Sofia Matveeva. Lady's slipper Paphiopedilum Rothschildianum

Sofia Matveeva. Lady's slipper Paphiopedilum Rothschildianum

Sofia Matveeva. Lelia Laelia cinnabariina
Sofia Matveeva. Lelia Laelia cinnabariina

Sofia Matveeva. Lelia Laelia cinnabariina

History has not preserved the name of the artist who worked on the expedition of the first explorer of Siberia D.G. Messerschmidt (1685-1735), who left a number of genuine masterpieces - botanical images of orchids. Academician-botanist I.Kh. Buchsbaum (1693-1730), a researcher of southeastern Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus, worked exclusively in watercolors along a pencil outline, depicting not only herbaceous plants, but also mosses. His drawings were widely known and were sometimes used by Karl Linnaeus himself. Johann Ammann (1707-1741) became the author of images and descriptions of rare wild plants in Russia, he paid great attention to seeds. I.G. Gmelin shocked the scientific world of Europe with the extensive illustrated botanical work “Flora Sibirica” (1747-1769), published after a 10-year Siberian trip. Finally, "Flora Rossica" by the versatile scientist P.S. Pallas (1784-1789),with hand-painted works of the best engravers of that time, was published at the expense of Catherine the Great herself.

"Catherine's bounties with gentle moisture, Trees and potions will be born on paper …"

Luxurious edition of "Altai Flora" by K.F. Ledebour (1829-1834), teeming with newly discovered plant species, was the latest in a series of brilliantly illustrated botanical works.

From the end of the 18th - the beginning of the 19th centuries, along with the improvement of engraving techniques, when it was no longer necessary to paint images by hand, botanical drawing penetrated from the pages of scientific books into mass, albeit quite expensive, literature.

Now artistic portraits of flowers, it would seem, can completely replace the photograph available to all. However, this does not happen - on the contrary, botanical drawing gains even more value as an elite art that is not subject to time. An instant snapshot cannot replace the warmth of manual labor, the knowledge of a botanist and the painstaking talent of an artist.

The exhibition of botanical drawings, which opened at the Academy of Watercolors and Fine Arts of Sergei Andriyaka, shows that nowadays artists work in a variety of techniques, using a wide palette of expressive means. And the desire for a variety of visual genres is growing and does not dry out. Wishing art to flourish and to attract interest in the world of plants, Sergei Nikolaevich Andriyaka solemnly opened the exhibition and presented his paintings "Roses" and "Bouquet" with irises.

Works by Sergey Andriyaka
Works by Sergey Andriyaka

Works by Sergey Andriyaka

This exhibition for the first time exhibited dozens of works made in the genre of botanical drawing by the artist Sofya Matveeva(1904-1986). Her entire life path is consecrated with her love for art. Already in her student years, after entering the Higher Artistic and Technical Institute, she improved her talent, studying painting and drawing from famous artists - P.V. Kuznetsova, S.V. Gerasimova, N.M. Chernysheva. Later she worked on the design of interiors and facades of city buildings, the pavilions of VDNKh (then the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition) together with the German architect and artist Erich Borchet. Their family and creative union lasted until 1942, when the head of the family suffered a difficult and unfair fate - to die tragically in the dungeons of Karlag and be rehabilitated only in 1962. We learned about the fate of the parents and the further path of S. Matveyeva from her daughter, Erika Erikhovna who came to the opening of the exhibition.

Sofia Matveeva. Daurian moonseed Menispermum dahuricum
Sofia Matveeva. Daurian moonseed Menispermum dahuricum

Sofia Matveeva. Daurian moonseed Menispermum dahuricum

Sofia Matveeva. Codonopsis lanceolate Codonopsis lanceolata
Sofia Matveeva. Codonopsis lanceolate Codonopsis lanceolata

Sofia Matveeva. Codonopsis lanceolate Codonopsis lanceolata

During the difficult war years, Sofya Matveeva continued to work in Moscow, designed objects of decorative and applied art, painted boxes and copied paintings of great painters: Levitan, Shishkin, Nesterov. She took up botanical drawing closely when she entered the Main Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences. For 25 years of work, from the first years after the opening of the garden (since 1946), Sofia Matveeva has created more than 3 thousand drawings - these are outlandish violets, tulips, lilies, irises and orchids brought from long-distance expeditions in Russia and abroad. Life strictly dictates its conditions to us, today many exotic plants growing far in nature are no longer in the open ground of the botanical garden, where it is not so easy to reach even today, but their images have survived and can be seen at the exhibition.The GBS RAS tried to perpetuate the memory of our employee, who worked in the flora department, and placed her botanical drawings as illustrations in scientific publications.

Sofia Matveeva. Scabiosa Olga Scabiosa
Sofia Matveeva. Scabiosa Olga Scabiosa

Sofia Matveeva. Scabiosa Olga Scabiosa

Sofia Matveeva. Foster's tulip Tulipa Fosteriana
Sofia Matveeva. Foster's tulip Tulipa Fosteriana

Sofia Matveeva. Foster's tulip Tulipa Fosteriana

A frequent visitor to the Main Botanical Garden named after N.V. Tsitsina RAS is our contemporary and talented artist Olga Makrushenko. From early spring to late autumn, she looks out for objects for her work. For the exhibition, she selected the fruits of garden plants, the appearance of which is so natural that it will certainly whet your appetite. Her works are made in the airbrushing technique, unique for botanical drawing. These drawings, which were born with the help of an airbrush that sprays the finest jet of paint on paper, have earned international recognition and are kept in museums in England, Japan and America.

Works by Olga Makrushenko
Works by Olga Makrushenko

Works by Olga Makrushenko

Darya Fomicheva's graphic works are also highly appreciated in Russia and the American Society of Botanical Drawing.

Daria Fomicheva. Lilies of the valley and liverwort. Spring
Daria Fomicheva. Lilies of the valley and liverwort. Spring

Daria Fomicheva. Lilies of the valley and liverwort. Spring

Florist artist Pavel Pugachev, who illustrated the "Red Book of the Volgograd Region" and "Flora of the Lower Volga", gave a master class on the opening day of the exhibition, demonstrating at the easel all the techniques necessary for accurate and refined reproduction of the most beautiful representative of the flora - the orchid.

Pavel Pugachev. Marsh Dremlik Epipactis palustris
Pavel Pugachev. Marsh Dremlik Epipactis palustris

Pavel Pugachev. Marsh Dremlik Epipactis palustris

Pavel Pugachev. Open backache (sleep-herb) Pulsatilla patens
Pavel Pugachev. Open backache (sleep-herb) Pulsatilla patens

Pavel Pugachev. Open backache (sleep-herb) Pulsatilla patens

Watercolor artist Alexander Vyazemsky suggested a collection of mushrooms for review - white, boletus, amanita.

Alexander Vyazmensky. Greenfinch
Alexander Vyazmensky. Greenfinch

Alexander Vyazmensky. Greenfinch

Alexander Vyazmensky. White mushroom
Alexander Vyazmensky. White mushroom

Alexander Vyazmensky. White mushroom

In addition to botanical drawing, the exhibition also presents other visual genres that are traditional for depicting flowers, plants, and landscapes.

You can admire for a long time the unique charm of old postcards with flowers and berries, depicted by the German artist Katharina Klein (1861-1929), and the amazing works of the Silver Age artist Lyubov Endaurova (1853-1938), brought to the exhibition from Kirov.

Postcards by Katharina Klein
Postcards by Katharina Klein

Postcards by Katharina Klein

Postcards by Katharina Klein
Postcards by Katharina Klein

Postcards by Katharina Klein

The extraordinary skill of the artist Olga Ionaitis, who has wonderfully designed the book of the English writer Frances Burnett "The Secret Garden", which will surely attract the attention of young readers, is fascinating. Fabulously lush vegetation surrounds the heroes of this work.

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The modern interior will be transformed with bouquets and armfuls of multi-colored peonies by Lyubov Lesokhina.

Lyubov Lesokhina. Peonies and jasmine
Lyubov Lesokhina. Peonies and jasmine

Lyubov Lesokhina. Peonies and jasmine

Paper and porcelain are transformed beyond recognition when the hand of Ekaterina Lukyanova touches them.

Ekaterina Lukyanova. Anemones
Ekaterina Lukyanova. Anemones

Ekaterina Lukyanova. Anemones

The plates, decorated according to the plant sketches by Dmitry Astafiev, look like works of art.

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Ornate oriental art is reflected in the painting with tree-like peonies by Alice Lozaika in the traditional style of Chinese painting.

The second life begins with dried flowers, twigs of trees and shrubs, artistically designed by Lyudmila Solod. Its exhibits - weigels, willows, maples and birches - are indispensable for educational purposes.

Lyudmila Solod. The language of flowers
Lyudmila Solod. The language of flowers

Lyudmila Solod. The language of flowers

The exhibition will run until May 10, 2016 and there is still time to plunge into the world of creativity and enjoy the beauty of natural flora, which will be interesting not only for adults, but also for children.

Olga Makrushenko. Long-pointed magnolia Magnolia acuminata
Olga Makrushenko. Long-pointed magnolia Magnolia acuminata

Olga Makrushenko. Long-pointed magnolia Magnolia acuminata

Photo: Alisa Galchenko, Rita Brilliantova

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