Flowers That Live In Things

Flowers That Live In Things
Flowers That Live In Things

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In the Museum of Decorative and Applied Arts from March 25 to May 25, 2015, the exhibition "Flowers that live in things" is being held.

Flowers - the most beautiful and poetic creation of nature - have always found a place in people's lives. They firmly entered everyday life, decorating our things with their fragile beauty. For a long time we have not paid attention to bed linen, plates, wallpaper and handkerchiefs "with flowers", considering them an attribute of everyday life. Let's try to look around and count right now how many objects with the image of flowers are around us. There are about a dozen materials alone that are used to depict flowers: fabrics, carpets, wood, glass, ceramics, porcelain, bone, beads and others.

Tableware suppliers were the first to turn to the floral theme in their production. How to decorate dishes so as not to spoil the mood and appetite of those sitting at the table? The safest option is flowers and arabesques. Despite the long and difficult path of creating their own porcelain, Russian porcelain factories in the 19th century managed to saturate the entire Russian market with their products, ranging from cheap products to unique works of art. The production of large sets was painstaking and difficult, because each piece of the set, often numbering up to several hundred items, was painted by artists by hand. That is why items from the same set could be distinguished only by the style of decoration, similar architecture and ornamentation. Hand painting made each piece unique.An example of such hand-painted objects is a pair of plates from the Popov factory.

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Small plates with floral painting. Russia, mid-19th century, Moscow province, Dmitrovsky district, p. Gorbunovo, A.G. Popov. Porcelain, relief, covering, overglaze painting

The Gardner Porcelain Factory, founded in 1754 by the Englishman Franz Gardner, was the first private porcelain factory in Russia and the predecessor of Popov's. Gardner's products were not inferior in quality to Meissen porcelain, but they were cheaper due to the reduction in shipping and the absence of duties. Russians with average incomes appreciated Russian-made products. She also found recognition at the court of Alexander II. Since 1856, the Manufacturing Gardner factory became a supplier to the imperial court and received the right to mark the Russian coat of arms - the two-headed eagle. This honor was akin to a quality mark. In 1892 the plant was purchased by M.S. Kuznetsov and became part of the “Partnership of M.S. Kuznetsov ".

Cup and saucer in the form of a rosebud. Russia, 1872-1889, Dulyovo, M.S. Kuznetsova. Porcelain, gilding, relief, overglaze painting
Cup and saucer in the form of a rosebud. Russia, 1872-1889, Dulyovo, M.S. Kuznetsova. Porcelain, gilding, relief, overglaze painting

Cup and saucer in the form of a rosebud. Russia, 1872-1889, Dulyovo, M.S. Kuznetsova. Porcelain, gilding, relief, overglaze painting

A glass for an egg in the form of a tulip flower. Russia, second third of the 19th century, Moscow province, Dmitrovsky district, p. Verbilki, F.Ya. Gardner, Porcelain, painting
A glass for an egg in the form of a tulip flower. Russia, second third of the 19th century, Moscow province, Dmitrovsky district, p. Verbilki, F.Ya. Gardner, Porcelain, painting

A glass for an egg in the form of a tulip flower. Russia, second third of the 19th century, Moscow province, Dmitrovsky district, p. Verbilki, F.Ya. Gardner, Porcelain, painting

A plate from the unique series "Roses" by Prince Yusupov is also present at the exhibition. The hand-painting faithfully reproduces the exact botanical depiction of different varieties of roses from the atlas "Roses", published in 1817-1824. in Paris. There is even an inscription under each image with the name of the variety.

Plate from the "Roses" series. Russia, 1825 Arkhangelskoe estate, N.B. Yusupov. Porcelain, gilding, overglaze painting
Plate from the "Roses" series. Russia, 1825 Arkhangelskoe estate, N.B. Yusupov. Porcelain, gilding, overglaze painting

Plate from the "Roses" series. Russia, 1825 Arkhangelskoe estate, N.B. Yusupov. Porcelain, gilding, overglaze painting

Flower images have long been widely used in weaving. Shawls came into European fashion at the end of the 18th century with the light hand of Napoleon's wife Josephine. For light translucent tunics, which then became fashionable, a warm woolen thing was needed, well combined with the loose folds of the tunic. Indian cashmere shawls have become such a successful addition. Brought to Russia by Parisian fashion, they firmly took root in the cold climate, which only contributed to the popularity of warm shawls. So there was an urgent need for the production of domestic shawls.

In the middle of the 19th century, merchants Ya.I. Labzin and V.I. Gryaznov launched the production of silk and woolen shawls at the Pavlovo Posad manufactory. Since 1865, the products of the "Trading House Ya.I. Labzin and V.I. Gryaznova”has been repeatedly awarded prizes at Russian and international exhibitions.

Floral ornaments were the main subject of shawl drawings. The drawing on the fabric was carried out using carved wooden forms. More than 400 board overlays were required to print intricate patterns with a wide range of colors. And this required exceptional precision, because each board carried only one color. Now the technology of photo film printing allows reproducing all the details and shades of the pattern on the fabric. For a century and a half, the flowers of bright Pavlovo Posad woolen shawls have been warming the hearts and shoulders of Russian women; they have been successfully exported and are considered one of the most prestigious gifts from Russia abroad.

Shawls "Blue Lilies" (author of Regunova E.P., 1979), "Rowan" (author of Regunova E.P. 1958) and "Mazurka" (author of Zinovieva K.S., 1977)) Russia, Pavlovsky Posad, Moscow shawl production association. Wool, photo film
Shawls "Blue Lilies" (author of Regunova E.P., 1979), "Rowan" (author of Regunova E.P. 1958) and "Mazurka" (author of Zinovieva K.S., 1977)) Russia, Pavlovsky Posad, Moscow shawl production association. Wool, photo film

Shawls "Blue Lilies" (author of Regunova E.P., 1979), "Rowan" (author of Regunova E.P. 1958) and "Mazurka" (author of Zinovieva K.S., 1977)) Russia, Pavlovsky Posad, Moscow shawl production association. Wool, photo film

Before many other materials, flower patterns began to be used in upholstery fabrics and wallpaper. In the halls of the exhibition, samples of the cretonne fabric are displayed - this dense cotton fabric with a printed pattern was widely used in Russia in the 19th century. for upholstering furniture, draperies, curtains and even pasting walls.

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Decorative fabric "cretonne". Russia, Moscow, late XIX - early XX century. Emil Tsindel Factory. Cotton, mechanical printing

In the middle of the 19th century, needlework became one of the obligatory forms of women's leisure. All the girls were taught etiquette, arts and crafts. The fashion for needlework is reflected even in the furniture industry: special tables for needlework have appeared. Sitting with a hoop in hand was not shameful even with guests. At one time, the ladies paid each other visits, carrying a handbag for needlework. Gradually, the universal passion for embroidery turned into even more painstaking beadwork. Bags, wallets, paintings, umbrella covers, panels and much more were embroidered with beads. And, of course, flowers were the main theme of such works.

The beaded plateau. Russia, 1830s Round and faceted glass beads, silk, silk threads, canvas, embroidery
The beaded plateau. Russia, 1830s Round and faceted glass beads, silk, silk threads, canvas, embroidery

The beaded plateau. Russia, 1830s Round and faceted glass beads, silk, silk threads, canvas, embroidery

In the XVI-XVII centuries. Europe first got acquainted with the lacquerware of the East. They quickly became fashionable, the emerging demand gave rise to the creation of their own varnish workshops, which at first imitated oriental models and drawings (such products "like China" were called "shirnoisri"). But in the 18th century, oriental themes gave way to European themes: bouquets, landscapes, genre scenes in the Watteau style.

The first lacquer panels were brought to Russia under Peter I. In the first half of the 19th century, workshops for the production of lacquerware arose in the vicinity of Moscow and St. Petersburg. In Moscow, the Lukutin factory, the Austen factory and the workshops of the Vishnyakov brothers were widely known. Lacquer production in Russia began in 1795 with lacquer visors for army caps in the village. Danilkovo (later merged with Fedoskino). In addition to the visors, the owner P.I. Korobov set up the production of unpretentious lacquer snuff boxes, on the lid of which a picture was pasted and covered with light varnish. Especially popular after 1812 were boxes with the theme of the just died out World War II.

In 1817 the factory passed into the hands of the owner's son-in-law, P.V. Lukutin, who develops technology and production, bringing them to the level of export goods. In 1828, for the high quality of his products, Lukutin was given the right to brand his products with the state double-headed eagle or the initials of the factory owner.

Production flourished in the second half of the 19th century. The Lukuta factory existed for more than a century next to the Vishnyakovs' workshops, which were engaged in painting lacquerware and created in 1825 by the Vishnyakov brothers - serfs who had bought off their free will. Sheremetev.

By the end of the 19th century, due to the emergence of a new hobby - photography - interest in lacquer miniature declines. In 1904 the factory is closed. In 1910, in the village. Semenishchevo, unemployed craftsmen Lukutin and Vishnyakov create an artel. In impoverished revolutionary Russia, lacquer miniatures are not in demand. But in 1923 they received recognition at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition, and the products began to be exported. The art of Fedoskino lacquer miniature takes on a second wind.

Box "Bouquet of flowers" Avt. A.A. Kruglikov Russia, Fedoskino, 1951 Papier-mache, varnish, oil, metal powders, miniature painting
Box "Bouquet of flowers" Avt. A.A. Kruglikov Russia, Fedoskino, 1951 Papier-mache, varnish, oil, metal powders, miniature painting

Box "Bouquet of flowers" Avt. A.A. Kruglikov Russia, Fedoskino, 1951 Papier-mache, varnish, oil, metal powders, miniature painting

Lacquer painting strikes with the purity and transparency of color and an amazing feeling of light emanating from the picture. This effect is achieved using two methods of painting: opaque "dense" paints, hiding the background, and glazing transparent paints applied to a layer of metal powder or mother-of-pearl, and giving the effect of illumination from the inside. Usually, craftsmen use both methods of painting on a product, giving the drawing a clean luminous background and inner light.

The bright Zhostovo trays well known to us stood out as an independent direction from the production of Lukuta lacquer miniatures in the middle of the 19th century. The continuity of such processing methods as the priming method, layered painting techniques, writing on mother-of-pearl inlays and a metallized background is obvious. These traditions are especially clearly seen in the work of 1826 by Afanasy Vishnyakov. The history of the creation of trays began with the painting of papier-mâché dishes.

Dish "Bouquet of flowers". Auth. Afanasy Vishnyakov. Russia, Moscow province, Sergiev, 1826 Papier-mache, varnish, oil, metal powders, painting
Dish "Bouquet of flowers". Auth. Afanasy Vishnyakov. Russia, Moscow province, Sergiev, 1826 Papier-mache, varnish, oil, metal powders, painting

Dish "Bouquet of flowers". Auth. Afanasy Vishnyakov. Russia, Moscow province, Sergiev, 1826 Papier-mache, varnish, oil, metal powders, painting

A certain stereotype of the Zhostovo tray has gradually developed. The main motive of the Zhostovo painting is a flower bouquet. The creation of a decorative tray has its own peculiarity: in the horizontal plane it is a tray, and in the vertical plane it is a picture. And every tray is born like this …

Having received a primed and varnished blank (more often it is black), the master begins painting without a preliminary drawing, a feature of the work is the method of free-brush painting. First, underpainting is applied - this is "the layout of the main color spots and a rough study of the volume and shape with the main tones of the paint." Then they work out the shadows, moving from dark to light tones, draw light places and complete the painting, tying the composition into a single whole with herbs and stems. The consistent transition from dark tones to light top layers allows you to create volume and the effect of highlighting the bouquet from the depths.

The Zhostovo tray found its place of "registration" only in 1960, when the Zhostovo factory of decorative painting was created.

Tray "Garden Flowers". Auth. Grafov B.V., Russia, Zhostovo, 1983 Iron, oil, varnish, painting
Tray "Garden Flowers". Auth. Grafov B.V., Russia, Zhostovo, 1983 Iron, oil, varnish, painting

Tray "Garden Flowers". Auth. Grafov B.V., Russia, Zhostovo, 1983 Iron, oil, varnish, painting

Phlox tray Aut. Antipov N.P., Russia, Zhostovo, 1978 Iron, oil, varnish, mother-of-pearl, gold leaf, painting
Phlox tray Aut. Antipov N.P., Russia, Zhostovo, 1978 Iron, oil, varnish, mother-of-pearl, gold leaf, painting

Phlox tray Aut. Antipov N.P., Russia, Zhostovo, 1978 Iron, oil, varnish, mother-of-pearl, gold leaf, painting

The end of the brilliant 19th century was reflected in the Art Nouveau style with its intricately curved lines, asymmetry, romantic floral ornaments and drawings. Colored ceramics are the favorite material of artists of this era, and irises are a symbol of modernity. All the style features are vividly presented in the "Irises" pots.

Irises cache-pot. Russia, Tver province, Korchevsky district, s. Kuznetsovo, 1890s Plant of M.S. Kuznetsov in Tver. Faience, colored glaze, relief, painting
Irises cache-pot. Russia, Tver province, Korchevsky district, s. Kuznetsovo, 1890s Plant of M.S. Kuznetsov in Tver. Faience, colored glaze, relief, painting

Irises cache-pot. Russia, Tver province, Korchevsky district, s. Kuznetsovo, 1890s Plant of M.S. Kuznetsov in Tver. Faience, colored glaze, relief, painting

The exhibition "Flowers that live in things" acquaints us not only with the many ways to bring into everyday life and preserve the beauty of flowers in things, but also with the history of decorative and applied art in Russia.

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