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Video: Pruning Fruit And Ornamental Plants
Gardeners never sit idle, and even more so in early spring. After all, the end of February and the beginning of April is the time for pruning. The weather all the time makes its own adjustments to the timing of pruning, then stretching, then reducing the period of work by about one and a half weeks. It is important to remember the main limitation - pruning must be carried out before the onset of sap flow, that is, before the buds begin to swell.
What is cropping and what is it for?
Pruning is the partial or complete removal of branches and shoots, taking care of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs, aimed at regulating their growth, development and fruiting.
What can be achieved by pruning is to improve the lighting conditions in the crown, to increase the productive period of fruiting and the peak of decorativeness of plants, to increase the yield and quality of fruits, to achieve the appearance of a large number of young shoots and fruit formations.
Since the goals of pruning are different, they distinguish between forming, rejuvenating, pruning to reduce the height and limiting the volume of the crown, sanitary.
Formative pruning is carried out mainly in the first three to five years. Its main task is to create an easy-to-care, well-lit, strong crown that allows you to accelerate the onset of flowering and fruiting, to obtain the greatest decorative effect and yield.
It is necessary:
- decorative trees and shrubs to give and maintain a decorative shape in the form of an even cone, ball, rectangle, etc.;
- deciduous trees: maple, linden, ash, mountain ash, etc.;
- conifers can be given exotic forms - multi-stemmed for pines, cones and balls for spruces, etc.;
- for ornamental shrubs, being mandatory, and is carried out every 3-4 years with the obligatory annual pinching of shoots;
- fruit trees for maximum fruiting and reducing the incidence of diseases and pests.
Rejuvenating pruning restores the dying growth of old trees, maintains the activity of growth processes, stimulates the formation of generative buds, restores decorativeness and increases plant productivity. It is necessary to renew the crowns of old deciduous trees and shrubs. Allows you to preserve your favorite varieties of fruit trees and shrubs, as well as old decorative deciduous trees.
Rejuvenation begins after the first two to three harvests or with a decrease in flowering. The branches are shortened for perennial wood, trying to preserve young, well leafy shoots. The first signs of a decrease in growth activity (weakening of shoot growth to about 15-20 cm) signal the need for rejuvenating pruning. It is impossible to be late with it, waiting for the complete attenuation of the apical growth. Usually such pruning is carried out every 3-4 years.
Pruning to reduce the height and limit the volume of the crown is aimed at improving the illumination regime, increasing the productivity of plants. This is the most time consuming type of pruning, mainly used in industrial fruit orchards.
Sanitary pruning is used on neglected trees that have not been pruned for a long time. This pruning can be done not only in spring, but all year round. First of all, broken and dried branches are removed, part of drooping branches in the lower crown zone. Then they carry out anti-aging pruning and limiting the size of the crown.
If we talk about the timing of pruning, then, of course, the rest period will be the best. In areas of the middle belt of fruit growing and ornamental gardening, it is better to cut plants from late winter to the beginning of flowering.
Can be cut in winter in thaws and at temperatures not lower than -8-10 ° C. With more severe frosts, the wood becomes brittle, the wounds turn out to be fragmented, poorly overgrown.
- Pruning is best done in March - early April, on a snow crust. But it is permissible to prune in June - usually additional.
- Thick branches are cut off, having previously filed them from the opposite side, so that there are no scuffing of the bark.
- Thin branches (thinner than 1 cm) are cut with pruning shears, leaving a spine 1.5-2 mm above the bud.
- Places of cut branches thicker than 1 cm should be lubricated with garden varnish. Very good garden pitch with pine resin - rosin. The layer of garden varnish should be at least 3-5 mm to prevent drying out of the cut site and getting infection into the wound. Recently, however, there have been recommendations to use latex paints with the addition of copper salts (for example: the preparation "Rannet", etc.), which provide protection and some porosity - breathing of the painted surface.
But it is not only the timing and cutting technology that are important. We must not forget about the peculiarities of fruiting of various fruit crops and their varieties, as well as the peculiarities of the growth and flowering of ornamental plants.
Evergreen ornamental plants
Strictly speaking, there are few evergreen leafy ornamental plants in our gardens - mostly rhododendrons. The bulk of evergreens are conifers. Both groups rarely need pruning, except for those used in green hedges. Single plants are pruned in case of thickening of the bush or the "exit" of the plant beyond its assigned boundaries, with too large growth of individual branches, which deforms the shape of the plant.
This, in fact, limits the cropping.
Not all deciduous shrubs need pruning, but those that do need to be pruned for their flowering time.
The first group is shrubs blooming on the shoots of the current year.
The second group - shrubs blooming on the shoots of the last year.
The first group is smaller than the second. Plants of the first group, as a rule, are pruned in early spring before growth begins, cutting out almost all the wood of the previous year, leaving several buds at the base (a classic example is roses, except for climbing roses). Young plants, if necessary, are pruned very weakly.
Some plants that bloom very early, but belong to the second group, are best pruned in early spring, after flowering, so that they have a long growing period until autumn (for example, forsythia).
Shrubs of the second group bloom on last year's branches. They grow almost simultaneously with flowering, so it is better to cut them off after flowering. In this case, part of the branches is completely cut off (rejuvenation process), part is partially cut off (flowering regulation).
Spirea, chubushnik - plants prone to strong thickening. Without pruning, they quickly age and lose their decorative effect.
If there are general patterns, pruning each plant requires an individual approach. You should remove branches that have no development prospects - i.e. branches that in a year or two will abut against another branch or trunk. Be sure to remove one of the rubbing branches.
In addition to trimming, you can form a crown using a garter, pulling and applying a wire bandage.
Timely and competently pruning is the key to the success of a fruit and ornamental garden!
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