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Video: Exhausting Heat - A Test For Plants And People
The grass on the lawns dries completely
The 2010 weather anomalies continue with unprecedented heat. The air temperature has been keeping at + 33-37 ° C for more than 4 weeks. A severe drought that began at the end of June has already affected 17 regions of Russia. Winter and spring crops have been seriously affected; livestock farms are harvesting feed crops ahead of schedule, while there is something to harvest and use for livestock feed. Farmers who have taken out loans for this year's harvest are in distress, because there will be practically nothing to give them away - the harvest dries up. Thousands of hectares of forests are burning in Karelia, forest fires have been recorded in other regions of the country.
The water level in rivers and lakes is dropping, wells are drying up, many people in rural areas are experiencing an acute shortage of water, because they have only imported water, it is barely enough for their own needs, and they still need to water the garden. Birches are rapidly turning yellow, putting on an autumn outfit in mid-July, the needles of pines and spruces are drying and falling, there is an active resinification of coniferous trees not only along the trunks, but even the cones emit resin.
The lawns are covered with dry poplar foliage
The black currant is already ripe and is crumbling
The berries are ripening rapidly - this summer strawberries, blueberries and raspberries ripened at the same time, already in mid-July, red and black currants ripened and crumble or dry out on the bushes. In large cities, lawns burn out, poplar foliage is showered and asphalt simply melts. Gardeners are also sounding the alarm. The situation is especially acute among people for whom their own garden is the main source of food.
Dangers of high air temperature
What can a person do to save the harvest in his personal plot? Apart from, perhaps, competent agricultural technology, we cannot help the plants in anything.
The big winners now are those gardeners who grow vegetables not in hotbeds and greenhouses, but in the open field. In the sun, in open ground, the air temperature reaches + 36-44 ° C at noon, and in the greenhouse it rises to + 60 ° C!
Alas, no amount of airing at such a high temperature helps. Correctly do those who completely remove the film, frames with film from film greenhouses.
And in greenhouses under glass or polycarbonate, plants are now much worse. To reduce the temperature there, neither whitening the roof from the inside with a solution of lime or chalk, nor using a white reflective film on the greenhouse roof will help. Therefore, keep the doors and vents wide open, closing them only after 10 pm - after all, the night temperature in some places drops to + 17-22 ° C, and the temperature drop of 15-20 ° C is also a very strong test for plants.
In the greenhouse and greenhouse, containers with water should always be standing - buckets, basins, whoever has what. And not one bucket per greenhouse, but 3-4 at the entrance, at the opposite end and in the middle. Pour cold water into a container. Moisten the aisle paths in the greenhouse 2-3 times a day with warm water.
Another danger of high temperatures is that at temperatures above + 30 ° C, tomato pollen, for example, becomes sterile, that is, no fruits can form. Apparently, one cannot count on a large tomato harvest this year.
There are more barren flowers on cucumbers than female flowers
In cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, heat leads to a change in sex - more male, that is, sterile flowers appear. And if many females appear, then there is simply not enough pollen to pollinate them all. In addition, bees in the heat are also weakly active and during the day they are not engaged in collecting nectar and pollination of plants, but mostly in the ventilation of the hives. Bees work most actively in the morning and evening hours.
And the flowers themselves wither and die faster in hot weather, so sometimes the bee has nothing to fly to.
Rules for watering, moisturizing and preserving water
First of all, it is necessary to provide plants with sufficient water and try to save this water. A watered plant can withstand both high temperature and low humidity more easily.
How to determine if plants are watered enough or not? For example, consider watering cucumbers.
Plants show everything themselves. The first visible sign is the appearance of the leaves.
In well-watered plants, the leaves are completely unfolded - their edges are neither bent towards the upper side, nor bent towards the lower side. The leaves are not sluggish and wrinkled, but firm and smooth. The color of the leaves is not dark green and dull and not yellowish green, pale, but emerald green, bright.
Cucumbers are watered enough
It has been experimentally established that for one cucumber plant for watering, it is necessary to give from 3 to 5 liters of water. Of course, when calculating the amount of water, one must proceed from the age of the plant, the number of ovaries and lateral shoots, the composition of the soil (it is sandy or clayey), and many other factors. But the average remains 3-5 liters per plant.
The water should be warm, within + 25-27 ° C, but not + 36-40 ° C. If it is not possible to pre-collect water for irrigation, you can also pour cold well or tap water. Of course, the plants will experience physiological shock, but it is better to give the plant cold water than not to give any.
The soil must be soaked to a depth of at least 25-30 cm, and preferably 50 cm - that is, to the depth of the main mass of roots (some roots of cucumbers go to a depth of 1.5 meters, which allows plants to pump water from the deep layers).
The second visible sign of sufficient moisture is the number and degree of development of ovaries. If you see that the existing ovaries develop evenly, do not turn yellow, do not fall off, then there is enough water for the plant. And if yellow ovaries appear, the cucumbers are poured slowly, and the greens taste bitter - the plants suffer from a lack of water.
Also pay attention to feeding, because plants cannot live long on water alone. In sunny, warm weather, fertilizers are absorbed faster, so feed them once every 7-10 days, and in cloudy, cool and rainy weather (oh, where is it!), The absorption of fertilizers is slow, so you need to feed the plants less often, 1 time in 10 -14 days.
Plants have such a phenomenon as self-normalization of fruits. Even if the plant is provided with everything it needs, it will still lose some of the fruit - this is a natural process. You can help the plant - if you see that there are too many fruits, they turn yellow and die off at the very beginning of development, just remove some of the fruits without sparing. So you will increase the yield, make it tastier and better.
Gooseberries bear fruit abundantly
Good harvest of plums expected
Watering times vary during the summer. So, if in the first half of summer, until mid-July, it was possible to water the plants in the morning and in the evening, now, from the second half of July, it should be watered only in the morning hours, from 6 to 10 hours. Watering times in greenhouses and hotbeds should be strictly observed. Refrain from watering from noon to 3 pm in both open and protected ground. It should be watered at the root, trying not to wet the leaves and flowers. A jet of water from a watering can or a hose should not erode the soil, otherwise the roots will be severely injured. Either place the hose on top of the ridge or hold the spout of the watering can to the very surface of the soil by removing the splitter. It is very important that the surface of the bed is horizontal, without slopes and depressions, otherwise the plants will not receive water evenly.
In addition to watering, it is necessary to moisten the leaves of plants and the air itself in the leaf zone, by spraying and showering the plants. Of course, during the flowering period, it is not necessary to spray especially often, otherwise you can wet and wash off the pollen. It is also better to spray and shower plants in the morning and evening hours, but not at noon under the scorching sun to avoid plant burns.
Leave the ends and sides of the ridges, aisles sod
Coniferous plants - pines, thuja, junipers and other conifers, but especially cypress trees - react especially sharply to low air humidity. Conifers in our climate with low air humidity need a shower.
But just watering and sprinkling the plants is not enough. Try to save water as much as possible. To do this, you can:
- Soak the soil under vegetable and flower crops to a depth of at least 50 cm, under trees and shrubs to a depth of at least 1 meter, irrigating every other day or two, and not do surface daily watering. If watering is small and frequent, then constant loosening can only damage the plants, and even being in the heat for a long time is harmful for a person himself, especially when doing useless work.
- Temporarily abandon weeding, because the weeds themselves protect the soil from rapid drying out. Well, let them take some of the water for their own needs, but vegetable crops will also be more comfortable in moist soil and a little shade. Of course, if the burdocks completely cover the salad garden, this is unacceptable. It is quite possible to leave the ends and sides of high ridges sodden, and also not to pull out the grass from the paths, but leave it shortly trimmed on them.
- Destroy the soil crust formed some time after watering and loosen the soil, but not deeper than 1-2 cm, otherwise the roots can be damaged.
- It is necessary to mulch the surface of ridges and row spacings with mowed and finely chopped grass, dry peat, but in no case should you use mulching film or black non-woven material such as "Lutrasil", "Spunbond" in the heat.
- Watering is best done in the morning, from 8 to 10 o'clock, so that the plants have time to make the most of the water in the cool morning hours and not suffer so much from the heat during the day.
It is not known how long the exhausting heat will last. But you should not despair, you need to see the positive side in everything. Indeed, despite the weather anomalies, cucumbers and tomatoes are still actively growing, there are many ovaries on zucchini, strewn with plum fruits, currants and raspberries are sweet as never before … All this needs to be helped to grow.
It's so hard to work in the garden in such high temperatures, but if we do our best to make life easier for our plants, we can enjoy their generous gratitude as we harvest.
Photo by the author
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