Plant Protection - Right And On Time

Plant Protection - Right And On Time
Plant Protection - Right And On Time

Video: Plant Protection - Right And On Time

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to Protect Plants and Crops from Pests and Disease | Animal and Plant Health Agency - Explainer 2023, January
Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot) of plum
Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot) of plum

Clasterosporiosis (perforated spot) of plum.

The abnormally warm April of this year was replaced by a warm May. This season, the development of diseases and the awakening of pests began much earlier due to warm weather, almost a whole month. Together with the sowing and planting of seedlings, one has to begin, or rather, continue a set of protective measures against diseases and pests. Pest and disease control measures can be divided into preventive (prophylactic), and actually therapeutic.

Already in April, it was necessary to collect the remnants of fallen leaves that had not been harvested since autumn, remove the remaining dried fruits from the fruit trees (if this was not done in the fall), remove dry and diseased foliage from the strawberry plantation, cut out dry and diseased, frost-bitten shoots of perennial flower crops and berry bushes.

Spray on the trunk and skeletal branches of trees and shrubs with copper-containing preparations - copper sulfate, HOM, OXYCHOM, Bordeaux liquid or use Horus, and also treat conifers after winter.

In May, before planting seedlings, the soil must be checked for acidity using a soil acidity meter (pH meter tester) or Soil Control test strips. It is especially important to know exactly the acidity level for crops such as hydrangeas, rhododendrons, heathers, conifers, for garden lingonberries, blueberries and cranberries, before planting seedlings of various cabbage, radish, turnip, radish and other members of the Cabbage family. And to be completely honest - it is necessary to know the acidity of the soil for absolutely all plants in your area. Moreover, for an objective picture, it is necessary to measure acidity 2-3 times per season - in the spring before planting, in the summer during the period of plant growth and in the fall, after the period of active plant growth. If you are not lazy to take such measurements annually, this will help prevent many problems with plants in the future.

The issues of treating plants against diseases and pests are relevant from year to year. It is important to clearly understand - when, from what and what to treat, or you just need to feed and water the plants.

Peronosporosis (downy mildew) onion
Peronosporosis (downy mildew) onion

Peronosporosis (downy mildew) of onions.

Preparations for pests are called insecticides, for plant diseases - fungicides, against weeds - herbicides. Unfortunately, confusion in the use of drugs occurs very often, people try to treat the scab with Inta-Vir or fight the caterpillars with Topaz and, not seeing the result, get upset.

It is necessary to carefully study the instructions for the drug - it indicates against whom the drug will help, as well as what concentration of the drug to prepare, in which phase of plant development to spray and how many treatments to carry out.

The correct choice of the drug is very important, but if the correct drug is used at the wrong time, the drug will have little or no effect. To determine the period of treatment, there are phases of plant growth and development, which are inextricably linked with the reproduction of pests and diseases, which must be taken into account when carrying out treatments.

For ornamental and fruit trees and shrubs:

  • the phase of the green cone (the beginning of bud opening, while the bud has not yet blossomed, and a green cone tip appeared);
  • the phase of extension (isolation) of the buds, when the buds have not yet opened;
  • phase of mass falling of petals (end of flowering);
  • ovary formation phase;
  • the "green apple" phase, when the ovary has increased in diameter to 1.5-2 cm;
  • fruiting phase;
  • leaf fall phase.

For vegetable and flower crops, they are somewhat different:

  • germination phase (cotyledonous leaves);
  • phase of the first true leaf;
  • the phase of planting seedlings for crops through seedlings and the phase of three to four true leaves for those sown immediately to a permanent place;
  • budding phase;
  • flowering phase (treatments are not carried out at all or they are done very carefully, without spraying the flowers, giving preference to biological preparations);
  • flowering end phase;
  • the phase of the appearance of the first ovaries;
  • fruiting phase;
  • leaf fall phase.
Red-gall aphid on red currant leaves
Red-gall aphid on red currant leaves

Red-gall aphid on red currant leaves.

Thus, treatments must be carried out during the entire season of active plant growth. One or two sprays per season, as some gardeners believe, is not enough at all.

The choice - to use chemical preparations or, abandoning chemistry, to use only biological ones - is completely and completely made by every gardener. However, remember that any drugs should not be used haphazardly, but clearly following the instructions. The best effect can be achieved if the drugs are used in a complex - that is, both chemical and biological. There are times when you cannot do without the use of "chemistry".

So, for example, in early spring or late autumn, when the air temperature has not yet reached + 15 ° C or has already dropped below this limit, biological preparations will not be effective (beneficial microorganisms that are part of these drugs, such as Alirin, Bitoxibacillin, Fitosporin- M, Trichodermin, Gamair, a series of Radiance preparations and others, simply cannot.

Apple scab
Apple scab

Scab on the fruits of an apple tree.

develop). Or if there is an outbreak of the development of a disease or pest - in this case, without the use of chemicals, it will be difficult for the gardener to cure the plants and prevent the crop from dying.

But in everything you need to know when to stop. So, it is not necessary to spray plants with preparations containing copper all year round. After all, copper does not disappear from the soil anywhere, but gradually accumulates. In large quantities, it becomes toxic to plants, and weakened plants are easily affected by pests and diseases.

The saying “A healthy mind in a healthy body”, to paraphrase it somewhat, is also suitable to illustrate the cultivation of healthy plants. With proper farming practices, your plants will always be healthy. After all, the use of drugs is only one of the agrotechnical methods of cultivation. The choice of a planting site, soil preparation, the choice of seeds and planting material, high-quality seedlings, the competent use of fertilizers and agricultural products, the use of agrotechnical and mechanical methods of combating diseases, pests and weeds - this is not a complete list of what constitutes plant health and the final result - harvest of fruits, flowers, seeds.

Successful gardening season!

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