Table of contents:
- Protection from pests and diseases
- Removal of plant residues
- Weed control
- Autumn pruning
Autumn came into its own, spoiling us with an unexpectedly long, warm, sunny and dry Indian summer. The three autumn months - September, October and November - are the time when the gardener can and should carry out preparatory measures to facilitate the wintering of his plants. These events need to be held annually and, of course, not only in the fall. After all, a garden is a living organism, which, according to the idea of the person who creates it, will live and bear fruit for a long time, more than a dozen years. And if this is so, then the main steps aimed at maintaining the longevity of the garden should be taken not after planting all the plants, but long before that, when thinking about the planting plan.
This plan consists of many points - this is thinking over the layout of the site, and assessing the illumination and terrain, the structure and quality of the soil, the level of occurrence of groundwater, the selection of planting material for winter hardiness and frost resistance, scion, and much more, which must be linked to biological characteristics development of selected plants.
But this is not the point now. In this article, I want to draw your attention to exactly what a gardener needs to do in the fall in a garden of any age.
So let's start with harvesting. Or rather, from the moment when the crop has already been harvested.
Now you can start the final season of disease and pest control. Depending on what exactly and how badly the plants were sick, what pests were affected, we use various agrotechnical, physical and chemical methods.
Protection from pests and diseases
1. Eradication treatment
Against most common diseases - powdery mildew, scab, coccomycosis, various spots on fruit and ornamental plants, good results are obtained by using a 5% (500 g per 10 l of water) solution of a well-known fertilizer - urea (carbamide). Such a concentration of nitrogen is detrimental to pathogens. This solution is sprayed with leaves that have not yet flown from the branches, the branches themselves and the trunk of the plant, and with a 7% solution (700 g per 10 l of water) - fallen leaves and the soil surface after harvesting the foliage. Every gardener has urea, it is easy to buy, and relatively cheap.
In addition to urea, it can be used for spraying:
- a solution of soda ash and soap (300-400 g of soda and 30-50 g of laundry soap per 10 liters of water);
- a solution of copper sulfate (200-300 g per 10 liters of water);
- various chemical preparations-fungicides (according to the instructions) - Horus, HOM, OXIXOM, Skor, Topaz, Tiovit Jet (colloidal sulfur) and others.
Spraying is carried out in dry weather in the middle or at the end of October 1 or 2 times (with a difference of 5-7 days).
Insecticide preparations are used against pests, for example, Actellik, Aktara, Vectra, Inta-Vir, Karbofos, Neoron and many others. The use of biological products in autumn is not advisable - microorganisms are actively developing and work only in warmth, when the air and soil temperature is above + 15 ° C.
2. Digging and loosening the soil
Kalina loves ash.
For this agrotechnical technique, the trunk circle must be clean of grass and fallen leaves. Most pests and pathogens overwinter in the upper soil layer at a depth of 15-20 cm. Therefore, it is enough to simply dig or deeply loosen the soil with a half bayonet or a full bayonet of a shovel so that pupae, larvae, eggs and adult insect pests simply freeze. And you don't need any chemistry. In addition, such soil treatment will help to retain moisture, which will reduce labor costs for watering.
It is better to dig under trees and shrubs with a pitchfork rather than a shovel to avoid severe damage to the roots. Thin roots, if damaged, will have time to grow before the soil freezes, and roots with a diameter of 2 cm or more do not have time to recover.
In loose soil, young roots will grow back faster and go deep enough not to be damaged by frost.
Together with digging, ash can be added to the soil - this is not only an excellent fertilizer that increases the cold resistance of plants, but also protection from pests.
In this way, it is possible, for example, to significantly reduce the number of viburnum leaf beetle, if 150-200 g of ash are added to 1 m 2 of soil and embedded to a depth of 5-10 cm. After digging, you can powder the soil surface with ash.
Removal of plant residues
Cabbage stalk - source of keela
The reception is necessary, however, it is often neglected. But in vain! After all, it is on fallen leaves, on fruits that have remained on the tree or have already fallen, on dead stems, etc., that is, on uncleared plant residues, pests and pathogens overwinter in a dormant state. In summer, plant residues can be used for composting. Just throwing outside the site or burying unprocessed or even treated with pesticides tops, leaves, pumpkin whips, cabbage legs does not mean getting rid of the infection - after overwintering, in the spring all diseases and pests will begin to multiply again, and plant infection will continue. In autumn, it is best to burn them, and use the ash as fertilizer.
There are at least two ways to keep the soil in an industrial garden - turfed (covered with grass) or clean of grass. Both methods have their pros and cons.
In your garden, tree trunks with a diameter of 0.5-1.0 m in fruit and ornamental trees are best kept clean of grass, even if it is planned to build a lawn under the trees. In this case, you can take care of the trees without disrupting the lawn care system, and vice versa. A tree-trunk circle free of grass can be loosened, mulched, it is easier to feed and water it, remove fallen leaves from it, etc.
If the lawn is not planned, the weeds should still not be allowed to grow freely, uncontrollably. They need to be mowed constantly to prevent seed formation, and herbicides can be used. After all, the harmful effect of weeds is not only the absorption of water and food intended for cultivated plants, but they are also a fodder base, intermediate hosts and a place for overwintering pests and diseases.
With the beginning of leaf fall before the first, weak and short, frosts and after them, before the onset of stable frosts, prune fruit trees and berry bushes from which the harvest is taken, as well as ornamental trees and shrubs that require autumn pruning. Pruning should not be carried out when the air temperature drops to -10 ° C, and even more so if it is below this limit. The wood becomes fragile, when pruning, longitudinal cracks may appear in the wood, which will no longer heal, and during the winter they can expand and deepen under the influence of frost, from which the tree will be seriously damaged and may later die.
Lichens on chokeberry
First of all, you need to cut out sick, dry, broken branches, as well as those that grow deep into the crown, thickening it, or stretched far to the periphery. The cuts should be smooth, even, without scuffing the bark. Wounds should not be left untreated, otherwise they will attract pests, pathogens and fungi quickly begin to develop in them, and they also serve as the basis for the formation of hollows, cracks, etc. Wounds must be immediately covered with garden varnish, a special Ranet paste garden glue or drying oil (but not paint). Before putting putty from the cut, you need to clean off the sawdust, remove the chips and burrs of the bark, sprinkle the cut with a 2% solution of copper sulfate. The old garden pitch on previously cut branches must be renewed, having previously cleared the cut site from debris accumulated there and possible rot.
Hemp cannot be left either, otherwise they will become a gateway for pests, diseases and fungi, they will collapse, creating a threat of damage to the remaining living tissue of a branch or trunk, and the formation of a hollow. Along with pruning, it is necessary to clear the trunks and branches of mosses and lichens, to clean off the old, dead, cracked bark, thereby removing from the tree possible places for overwintering pests - weevils, apple moth, comma-shaped scabbard and others. Everything that is cleaned off is also subject to burning.
Plants begin preparing for winter from mid-July. Already from the 15th, it is impossible to feed perennial plants with fertilizers, the nitrogen (N) content of which is more than 5%. It is necessary to give preference to phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, because it is phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) that are responsible for resistance to negative temperatures and growth of the root system, and nitrogen stimulates growth. In this case, in a natural way, along with the period of growth and fruiting, ripening of shoots, accumulation of sugars, laying of flower buds, strengthening of cell walls, an increase in the viscosity of cell sap and other processes will take place, allowing plants to prepare for winter.
It is in September-October that the second wave of root growth occurs in perennial plants. During this period, it is necessary to carry out the last dressing from a series of dressings begun in mid-July, designed to accelerate root growth and increase the cold and winter hardiness of plants. They make it a phosphorus-potassium fertilizer that does not contain nitrogen, and also use a mixture of trace elements.
From July 15, the following fertilizers should be applied - Kemira Osennee (contains 4.8% nitrogen), fertilizers from the Buisk chemical plant OMU Osennee (2% nitrogen), Aquarin Khvoyny (3% nitrogen). Gradually, by September -October, you need to switch to fertilizers that do not contain nitrogen at all, such as "Autumn" of the Buisk chemical plant, "Kalimagnesia", "Potassium monophosphate", "Potassium sulfate." It is better to apply fertilizer in liquid form so that plants can quickly assimilate them. If there is "Superphosphate double", it can also be brought under the autumn digging, but in a dry state, because it dissolves poorly. It will act for 1-2 seasons, so you should not get carried away with it, especially on acidic soils, where phosphorus quickly passes into a form inaccessible for absorption by plant roots - the soil is phosphated.
If you could not buy any of the above fertilizers, then use wood ash - it contains all the macro- and microelements necessary for plants except nitrogen, and this is exactly what plants need in autumn.
The last top dressing is carried out in early to mid-October, on the soil that has not yet been tied to frost. Doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers application depend on soil fertility, on the crop that needs to be fed, on the concentration of the nutrient in the fertilizer. For 1 m 2 you can add, for example, 35-60 g of potassium monophosphate (for 10 l of water)
or 150-200 g of dry ash.
The summer of 2010 was distinguished by a severe drought and prolonged heat. The consequences of a long period of water shortage and high air temperature can manifest itself in a reduction in life expectancy and premature aging of trees, in a decrease in yield, shrinking of fruits, a deterioration in their presentation, taste, keeping quality. Weakened plants are more susceptible to attacks by pests, diseases, and their cold and winter hardiness decreases.
One of the methods of preparing plants for winter is abundant watering (podzimny) watering. It stimulates root growth, prevents dry shoots, root death in dry, frozen soil. It should be carried out closer to the end of October, before persistent frosts on the soil. If the fall is rainy and the soil is wet enough, watering can be skipped.
But it is precisely with the definition of a sufficient amount of water for irrigation that difficulties arise. Waterlogging of the soil is no less dangerous than leaving the root system in dry, frozen soil. In waterlogged soil, the roots suffocate from lack of air. Oxygen evaporates, carbon dioxide accumulates, clogging begins, the growth and development of roots is inhibited, they begin to die off.
These difficulties are associated, first of all, with the weather conditions of each specific year, and it is also necessary to take into account the age of the plant, the mechanical composition of the soil, the relief of the site and many other factors.
The rules for water charging irrigation are as follows:
for young trees, water is distributed evenly around the circumference of the trunk circle, and for fruit-bearing trees - along the periphery of the crown;
- irrigation rate - at least 50 liters of water per 1 m 2 of the trunk circle;
- water in small portions of 10-20 liters with a difference of 1-2 hours, you cannot pour 50 liters at once, otherwise the water will not be absorbed, but will simply leak;
- it is impossible to water with water directly from a well or well, the water temperature should be equal to the air temperature, and it is better that the water is 3-4 degrees warmer than the air;
- soil moisture is considered sufficient if, within half an hour after watering, the top layer of the soil, no more than 1-2 cm deep, resembles thick sour cream in consistency - it stains the hand, but does not flow down the hand. Stagnation of water must not be allowed;
- when watering from a watering can or a hose, the soil must not be eroded, the water jet should not be strong, otherwise the thin roots are easily injured. Keep the spout of the watering can low above the ground and use a splitter when watering with a hose;
- you can not wet the stem of the tree, this can lead to cracking of the bark;
- on soils of light texture (sandy and sandy loam), the irrigation rate will be higher than on clay soils and peat bogs.
When watering and top dressing, it should be borne in mind that the root system of trees goes far beyond the crown, and you need to apply top dressing and water the entire area of the circle, and not just a small area of soil near the trunk.
Autumn mowing of sea buckthorn
The diameter of the trunk circle, based on the age of the tree, is:
1-2 years - 2.0 m;
- 3-4 years - 2.5 m;
- 5-6 years old - 3.0 m;
- 7-8 years old - 3.5 m;
- 9-10 years old - 4.0 m;
- 11-12 years old - 5 m.
If possible, keep the entire trunk circle clear of grass, increasing its diameter as the tree matures (you can plant vegetables, annual flowers, herbs there). If this is not possible, keep a circle with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 m clean of grass.
This is a very important and necessary agricultural technique that destroys pests that have climbed into cracks in the bark, reducing the risk of cracks, frost cracks and sunburn of the bark in winter. That is why it is necessary to whitewash the trunks in the fall, when the rainy period ends, and not in the spring, as most gardeners do. Whitening of trunks in spring no longer has the desired positive effect, because the main damage to the plant is received in winter.
Unhealed apple tree frost
You need to whiten the entire lower part of the trunk - from the soil surface to the base of the lower skeletal branches, including the base of the branches, and not 1 meter of the trunk, as is often done. This procedure, carried out in the fall, among other positive effects, also reduces the risk of plant damage from black cancer.
It is best to use glue-based whitewash, for example, Gardener, Fas, and others. You can use special paints for whitewashing trees and shrubs.
Every gardener wants to see his garden healthy and blooming for many years. That is why the care of the garden should not be left to chance. Only your annual attentive and careful attitude towards plants, carrying out correct and timely agrotechnical measures will help the garden to live, and you and your descendants - to enjoy the fruits of your labor.
Photo by the author