The Collection Of Rare Berry Crops Created By E.I. Sausage In The Suburbs

Table of contents:

The Collection Of Rare Berry Crops Created By E.I. Sausage In The Suburbs
The Collection Of Rare Berry Crops Created By E.I. Sausage In The Suburbs

Video: The Collection Of Rare Berry Crops Created By E.I. Sausage In The Suburbs

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: This Rare Berry Should Be in Supermarkets! (Myrteola Nummularia) - Weird Fruit Explorer 2023, January
Anonim
Actinidia arguta, a promising variety
Actinidia arguta, a promising variety

Actinidia arguta, a promising variety

We can confidently say that we owe the presence of actinidia in the gardens of the middle zone to Ella Ioganovna Kolbasina, whose 80th anniversary was dedicated to the International Scientific and Practical Conference, held at the All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery (VSTISP) on August 15-18, 2013 in within the framework of the IV All-Russian Forum "Garden Days in Biryulyovo".

Ella Ioganovna Kolbasina
Ella Ioganovna Kolbasina

Ella Ioganovna Kolbasina

E.I. Kolbasina is a leading scientist in the field of cereal physiology. In the scientific world, the unique method developed by her for assessing the resistance of grain crops to the ice crust is widely known, which is widely used by Canadian scientists. But her fascination with rare cultures of the Far East has become such a significant part of her scientific work that today her name is most often associated with them. Before VIR E.I. Kolbasina worked at the Museum. Timiryazeva, even there she foresaw the prospects of these rare crops for widespread cultivation in gardens. And after moving to VIR, she herself proposed them for research, although at that time she was engaged in the problems of preserving the gene pool.

Ella Ioganovna's efforts were essentially a continuation of the work of N.I. Vavilov and I.V. Michurin, who in the 30s of the XX century conducted the first expeditions to the Far East in order to study the stocks and diversity of wild plants. Since 1906 I.V. Michurin began breeding work with actinidia, the seeds of which came to him from the Far East. He created a breeding fund of domestic actinidia and received the first varieties (the weight of Michurin varieties was 2-2.5 g, now there are varieties of actinidia arguta and hybrid with a fruit weight of up to 28 g, average weight - 9-13 g). In 1912 I.V. Michurin wrote: "… we can confidently assume that in the future actinidia will take one of the first-class places among the fruit plants of our region, capable of completely replacing grapes in the quality of their fruits …". Chinese schisandra,a relict element of the Japanese-Manchu flora of the Far East, was also the object of research of the great scientist.

Э.И. Колбасина начала работать с актинидиями с 1953 года на Сахалине, а с 1969 г. – в МОВИР. Тогда эта культура не входила в государственный план исследований, и заниматься ею приходилось в свободное от основных задач время. Она совершила немало нелегких, порой опасных экспедиций по местам природного произрастания с целью сбора образцов актинидий и лимонника. Благодаря ей эти культуры обрели свою вторую родину в Центральном регионе России. Ей удалось доказать, что эти растения не теряют в культуре своих природных свойств – напротив, у актинидий увеличиваются размер плодов, содержание витамина С, сумма сахаров и органических кислот, а лимонник сохраняет аромат и яркую окраску плодов, содержание схизандрина, высокую кислотность натурального сока. Она впервые разработала методику оценки сортов актинидии и лимонника для комиссии по госсортоиспытанию (ГСИ РФ). Кроме того, Э.И. Колбасина искренне считала, что эти лианы положительно влияют на человека.

In 1996 at VIR she defended her doctoral dissertation on the topic: "Actinidia and Schizandra in Russia." She published 125 scientific works, published 4 brochures, the book "Actinidia and Schisandra in Russia" (2000). After her death, fundamental works were published - "Actinidia gene pool in Russia" (2007) and "Cultural flora of Russia. Actinidia and Schisandra "(2008).

Image
Image

Today, the VSTISP live collection of rare fruit crops contains:

168 samples of four types of actinidia (A. kolomikta, A. arguta, A. polygamy, A. purple);

  • 15 samples of Schisandra chinensis;
  • 33 samples of honeysuckle;
  • 1 variety of multifloral sucker (gumi) - Taisa.
  • Actinidia
    Actinidia

    Actinidia

    Honeysuckle
    Honeysuckle

    Honeysuckle

    Most of the collection samples were collected in the form of seeds from the fruits of wild lianas in Primorye, on the Kuril Islands, about. Sakhalin and from cultivated plants in amateur and botanical gardens in expeditions to the regions of the Central Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation, Nechernozem, Ukraine from 1981 to 1988. Several hundred wild and cultivated forms were selected on expeditions in the Primorsky Territory (in the Ussuriysky, Spassky, Shkotovsky, Lesozavodsky Districts, near the city of Artyom), in the Khabarovsk Territory, on the island. Sakhalin, (near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and Kholmsk), as well as in Voronezh, Vladimir, Dnepropetrovsk, Ivanovsk, Ryazan, Yaroslavl regions, in the botanical gardens of the cities of Moscow, Vladivostok, Kiev, Leningrad.

    The value of this collection lies in the fact that it includes not only natural samples, but also many cultivated ones, including those from amateur gardens. All of them were grown from seeds, which prevented the transmission of diseases, contributed to the acquisition of greater resistance to the climatic conditions of the middle zone. So many samples were collected that they served as extensive and valuable material for breeding.

    Kolbasina E.I. is the main author of the obtained by selection in the seed generation

    32 varieties of actinidia (28 - A. kolomikta, 1 each - A. arguta and A. polygamy),

    • 2 varieties of Chinese magnolia vine,
    • 1 variety of multifloral sucker (gumi) Tais.

    Actinidia kolomikta has the broadest ecological range than other species. It is the most widely represented in the collection and is more common in gardens.

    Actinidia arguta in the collection not only grows well, but also produces fruits with full-fledged seeds. The erroneous opinion about its weak winter hardiness is associated with the late end of the growing season and freezing of about 1/3 of non-lignified shoots in winter. But the plants grow back easily, and no deaths have been observed. E.I. Sausage did not find new varieties of actinidia argut, which are distinguished by higher winter hardiness and excellent taste, obtained on the basis of the collection.

    Actinidia purpurea (seedlings), imported from China, grows on the northern slope, but not on the trellis, and also bears fruit. Sometimes it freezes by 4 points (on a 5-point scale), but after that it recovers and still gives short fruiting shoots.

    Hybrids of actinidia purpurea and argut were obtained. Among the hybrids, the most interesting variety is Hybrid Sausage, with plum-colored fruits, excellent taste, in the conditions of the Moscow region it is more winter-hardy and large-fruited than the well-known variety Purple Sadovaya.

    A very valuable species is actinidia Giralda, listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, which is now considered a subspecies of actinidia arguta. Even in the harsh winter of 2005/2006. it is not frozen, hibernates and bears fruit without being removed from the supports. Its hybridization with actinidia purpurea and arguta is possible.

    Actinidia Polygamum Lesnaya
    Actinidia Polygamum Lesnaya

    Actinidia Polygamum Lesnaya

    Actinidia polygamus stands aside from green-fruited species. In the Far East, it is called "pepper" for the fruit, yellow with a "spout", which, when unripe, has a burning taste. Some believe that its berries taste like vegetables. But this is not a “vegetable on a branch”, but a valuable sweet and juicy taiga berry, rich in beta-carotene, provitamin A, vitamin C, which tastes more like figs. It also features edible young shoots and leaves.

    Loch multiflorous (gumi) E.I. Kolbasina considered the most promising culture. She bred the Taisa variety, entered in the State Register. Early ripening, dessert. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.2 g, ovoid, elongated, dark red. They contain: sugar 6.0%, acid 0.7%, vitamin C 30 mg%. The taste is sweet and sour, the tasting score is 4.5 points. Average yield - 0.9 kg / bush. Resistant to frost. Weakly affected by pests and diseases.

    The honeysuckle collection is now also being supplemented with modern varieties for selection and cultivation by amateur gardeners.

    Varieties of actinidia kolomikta and schisandra chinensis, 2013

    In 2013, 5 varieties of actinidia kolomikt and 1 - lemongrass were registered, bred by the State Scientific Institution VSTISP of the Russian Agricultural Academy, recommended for all regions of Russia (authors - Kolbasina E.I., Kozak N.V., Temirbekova S.K., Kulikov I.M.). Two of them are named after E.I. Sausage.

    Actinidia kolomikta ella
    Actinidia kolomikta ella

    Actinidia kolomikta ella

    Actinidia kolomikta in Memory of Kolbasina
    Actinidia kolomikta in Memory of Kolbasina

    Actinidia kolomikta in Memory of Kolbasina

    Ella - medium early, large-fruited. Berry weight up to 5.8 g. The content of vitamin C in fruits is 1544 mg%.

    • In memory of Kolbasina - medium early, large-fruited. Berry weight - up to 9.5 g. The content of vitamin C in fruits is 1600 mg%.
    • Actinidia kolomikta Nadezhda
      Actinidia kolomikta Nadezhda

      Actinidia kolomikta Nadezhda

      Actinidia Kolomikta Uslada
      Actinidia Kolomikta Uslada

      Actinidia Kolomikta Uslada

      Nadezhda is an early ripe variety, not prone to fruit shedding (in most other varieties, up to 70% falls). Berry weight up to 2.9 g. Vitamin C content in fruits - 1224 mg%;

      • Delight - early ripening, berries of high taste, weighing up to 3.9 g. The content of vitamin C in fruits is 1600-1900 mg%. The most productive of the varieties.
      • Actinidia kolomikta Champion
        Actinidia kolomikta Champion

        Actinidia kolomikta Champion

        Champion is mid-late. Indeed, the champion in the content of vitamin C in fruits, up to 2750 mg%.

        Schisandra Chinese Debut
        Schisandra Chinese Debut

        Schisandra Chinese Debut

        Schisandra chinensis Debut is a new variety, mid-season, berry weight - up to 19.5 g. The content of vitamin C in fruits is 100 mg%. The shape of the berry is compact, cylindrical.

        Characteristics of the fruits of the best elite actinidia seedlings isolated in 2009-2012

        Image
        Image
        Actinidia Hybrid Sausage
        Actinidia Hybrid Sausage

        Actinidia Hybrid Sausage

        Actinidia arguta Cassiopeia
        Actinidia arguta Cassiopeia

        Actinidia arguta Cassiopeia

        Now the case of E.I. Kolbasina is continued by Natalya Vasilievna Kozak, who has worked with her for 14 years, a senior researcher at the State Scientific Institution VSTISP, curator of the actinidia collection.

        Further work is being carried out to collect samples for replenishing the collection of the State Scientific Institution VSTISP of the Russian Agricultural Academy and in-depth study of the available forms for a complex of biological and economically useful characteristics. The wild plants of actinidia bear valuable traits of non-shedding fruit (at least 2 samples), multi-fruiting, which are still little used and represent a great potential for breeding.

        Recently, some self-fertile varieties have appeared (for example, the Dutch variety of actinidia Argut Issey), but the percentage of their self-fertility is very low, therefore, it is necessary to plant male plants for them in order to increase the likelihood of pollination.

        Along with the selection of forms-sources of useful traits: high productivity, large-fruited, high content of biologically active substances in fruits, good taste of fruits, winter hardiness, the problems of early diagnosis of the sex of plants, the creation of varieties that meet the requirements of industrial cultivation of actinidia and schisandra chinensis become urgent: with optimal parameters of plant habit, fruit separation, ripening amicability, suitability for mechanized harvesting of fruits. Work is underway to create varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting - for example, the actinidia arguta Lugovaya has fruits that are easily separated from the stalks.

        Preservation of the gene pool of actinidia

        This rich collection also serves the purpose of preserving the natural gene pool and biodiversity. In GBS them. N.V. Tsitsin RAS, the Bank of in vitro sterile cultures has been created and a database of in vitro samples is being developed, which will be available on the Internet. The bank has more than 1000 names and is the largest in Russia, the actinidium family occupies 8% of it. These are natural forms and varieties of all species and hybrids of actinidia, among them 76.5% are collected by E.I. Kolbasina (curator of the collection - Konovalova L.N., junior researcher of the Tsitsin GBS RAS). Collection of VIR them. Vavilov has been studied in detail. For the first time, using genetic markers, the level of genetic relationship of species was estimated, according to the results of which it is proposed to consider actinidia Giralda and purple as subspecies of actinidia arguta We should pay tribute to E.I. Kolbasina,on whose initiative these studies were carried out.

        The flood that happened this year in the Far East shows the special value of the collections of the State Scientific Institution VTISP and the GBS RAS, since the natural disaster affected not only the population, but also the precious flora of this region.

        Based on materials from speeches

        S.K. Temirbekova - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head. laboratory of field crops, head of scientific topics for the gene pool of the GNU VSTISP

        • Kozak N.V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher of the State Scientific Institution VSTISP
        • Vasilyeva O.G., junior researcher and Molkanova O.I., candidate of agricultural sciences, head of the laboratory of plant biotechnology, GBS them. Tsitsina RAS

        www.vstisp.org/

Popular by topic