Table of contents:
- Placing various crops in the greenhouse
- Creation of optimal conditions for plants inside the greenhouse
- A little about varieties and hybrids
Different vegetable crops require different living conditions. And according to the rules, it is not recommended to grow them in the same greenhouse. Some gardeners install two or more greenhouses or one long one and, having partitioned it in half, thus create optimal conditions for keeping crops. Our family is small, and the area of the site does not allow "roaming". Our solar-powered greenhouse, home-made, has a frame made of 35 mm x 70 mm timber, covered with cellular polycarbonate 6 mm thick, 3.6 mx 6.0 m in size, 3.0 m high in the ridge. The roof is broken, polygonal (Photo1). Inside the greenhouse is equipped with a room fan (for mixing the air), and emergency heating in case of a sudden cold snap - a household fan heater. For ease of use, both devices are equipped with remote controls.This season, the greenhouse equipment was supplemented with a wireless sensor, which transmits current information or sound signals (in the event of a drop or rise in temperature beyond acceptable limits) to a small weather station in the house. And you can take the necessary measures in time. For more information about the device of the greenhouse, see the article DIY greenhouse
I have been growing vegetables for many years. Over the past decade, breeders have developed a huge number of new varieties and hybrids that easily adapt to various growing conditions, the vagaries of local weather and are highly resistant to the main types of diseases of these crops.
Thanks to the above-described scientific achievements, a good greenhouse and equipment, we successfully grow 5 crops in it at the same time (tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants and physalis). We grow all seedlings exclusively ourselves. Our family has fresh produce to the table from spring to late autumn.
Placing various crops in the greenhouse
First of all, the greenhouse itself must be correctly oriented to the cardinal points. It should run from north to south along the length of the ridge. The ridges inside it should also be directed along the length from north to south. If possible, it is better to make three narrow ridges in the greenhouse than two wide ridges (even in a small one). The ridges should be about 15 cm high and fenced off with any available material - flat slate, boards, etc. To raise the soil to the required height, you can dig a trench in the center of the ridge, almost the size of its width, and lay large branches, stumps and any other rough suitable material on the bottom. Put a thin layer on top of, for example, branches, brushwood, wood chips, garden debris and cover everything with the removed soil, a layer of 35-40 cm.This will not only raise the soil level, but also serve as additional drainage in areas flooded in spring.True, such ridges will have to be watered a little more often.
It is also very important to correctly place the different types of crops in the greenhouse. Here it is necessary to take into account the cold resistance, shade tolerance, height and "range" of plants, as well as the tolerance of their proximity to each other on the same ridge.
In the northern part of the side ridges, you can plant the most cold-resistant and shade-tolerant crop, for example, vegetable physalis. In front of him, in the central part of the side ridges, are tall and semi-tall tomatoes. And it is better to take the central ridge under the cucumbers, so it will be easier to care for and shape them, since here the greenhouse is highest in the ridge (Photo 2).
On all three ridges on the south side, you need to leave room for peppers and eggplants. But there is, however, one caveat. Pepper and eggplant are very poorly adjacent to tomatoes. In this case, I plant a couple of cucumbers between tomatoes and eggplants with pepper (Photo 3). Or I dig in across the entire width of the ridge a "divider" made of boards or slate. The top of the leaf is just above the soil level, literally 3-4 cm, it goes 30-35 cm deep. Plants should be placed in such a way that the leaves of the fruit-bearing bushes of these “neighbors” do not touch each other in the future (Photo 4).
This is an example of plant placement when no preference is given to one of the crops grown (Photo 5). If any culture is grown as the main one, then here it will be necessary to make adjustments not only for placement, but also for the formation and selection of varieties or hybrids of this culture. Everything will depend on where it will be located.
Read more in the article Vegetable crops for joint cultivation in a greenhouse.
Creation of optimal conditions for plants inside the greenhouse
Even the most wonderful greenhouse is only a third of the success, and the remaining two-thirds are high-quality seedlings and a competent agrotechnical approach.
To obtain an early and high total yield, a solar-heated greenhouse must be equipped with at least emergency heating (see the article Do-it-yourself greenhouse). It helps out very well in May - early June, when the weather is unstable and the nights are still quite cold. In the autumn period, it is practically not used, since the crops are already finishing their growing season and the use of heating does not justify itself.
For cucumbers, peppers and eggplant, it is good to build a warm bed. This will make it possible to get the first cucumbers (planted with 15-20 day old seedlings) already in early June. To obtain such early production of pepper and eggplant, it is additionally necessary to build a shelter of non-woven material or film. Otherwise, young plants can weaken greatly and they will not yield a good harvest. Mature, well-rooted plants can tolerate adverse conditions more easily.
It is more difficult to do a crop rotation in a greenhouse than in an open field. It is not always possible to move crops from one ridge to another. Therefore, it is necessary either to completely replace the entire soil, or to remove 1/3 of the layer, where the largest number of pests and diseases accumulate. The remaining contents of the beds are simply interchanged (at least partially) and the missing fresh substrate is added. For example, the soil from under the cucumbers is thrown onto the ridge where tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants will grow. And vice versa.
After harvesting the main crops and tidying up the greenhouse, it is good to sow fast-growing Sederats such as mustard or mixtures of these. After the growth of the green mass, the ridges are dug up. In the greenhouse, due to the lack of snow cover, the ascended Sederats do not overwinter, even winter rye.
A little about varieties and hybrids
Competent selection of assortments is an important issue, but this is only half the battle. The most remarkable, unpretentious and fruitful varieties and hybrids may turn out to be completely useless if they are incorrectly formed (relative to specific conditions) or the peculiarities of agricultural technology are not taken into account.
Continuation of the topic - in the article Vegetable crops for joint cultivation in a greenhouse.
Photo by the author