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In the vegetable garden, including the pharmaceutical one, it is time to divide perennials. It's time to do this in early autumn, in September (or in late April - early May). Which term to prefer? Be guided, first of all, by the biological characteristics of the culture and the availability of free time. If autumn is freer, there is much that can be done now. But if the culture is thermophilic and capricious, then it is better to leave the "dismemberment" until spring.
It is much easier to propagate most medicinal plants vegetatively than to sow with seeds. Indeed, many of them can only get seedlings after numerous tricks. Yes, and many plants grow very slowly, and the result, that is, medicinal raw materials, I want to get faster. So let's talk today about who and how to divide, and who should not be divided.
First, prepare the place where you will plant the dividends. This must be done the more carefully, the longer the plant will grow in one place. In addition, you should take into account the mode of wetting the site and its illumination. Do not plant light-loving plants near the northern wall of the house. When digging, it is necessary to choose perennial rhizome and root-sprouting weeds such as dandelion, dandelion, sow thistle and wheatgrass. Germinating in the center of the bush, they will not only spoil the view, but also interfere with the plants. For example, wheatgrass very often sprouts through the rhizomes and spoils future raw materials. In addition, it is necessary to apply organic and mineral fertilizers, especially if the plant has to grow in one place for many years. Usually a bucket of compost or rotted manure per square meter or in a planting hole is sufficient.
After that, we move on to division. Early growing plants - adonis, wild garlic, evading peony, blue cyanosis, pink rhodiola, Caucasian hellebore and blushing, Leuzea safflower - should be the first to undergo execution. We kindly ask you not to be greedy and do not make the division too small. There must be 2-3 buds and a noticeable piece of rhizome. For example, a peony has no less than a large potato tuber. In Rhodiola pink, the size of the rhizome should be at least 5-6 cm. It is better to sprinkle the slices with crushed coal and dry for several hours, and only then plant. It is advisable to divide the wild garlic at the same time. But if you are late to do this as early as possible, then it is better to leave it until the end of summer - the beginning of autumn, when it is at rest. Otherwise, it will hurt a lot.At the same time, it is better to separate the shoots from shrubs - rose hips, Japanese quince, irgi, skumpia, sea buckthorn, Mahonia, Eleutherococcus, Aralia. The root system of the shoot is usually very weak, so try to make the “umbilical cord” connecting the mother plant and the shoot more authentic. When planting, you can powder their rather dead roots with Kornevin. This root former is available at any gardening store and promotes rapid root formation in most plants.This root former is available at any gardening store and promotes rapid root formation in most plants.This root former is available at any gardening store and promotes rapid root formation in most plants.
A little later, you can divide the labiates - lemon balm, monarda, oregano, thyme, catnip. The easiest option is to dig out a bush and chop it with a shovel, without shaking it off the ground, into 3-5 parts. With further planting, the plants practically do not get sick. But if the old bushes have sprouted with weeds, then the earth will have to be shaken out, all the weeds selected and the plant cut into pieces of rhizomes with buds with shears. At the same time, the division turns out to be much larger, but their care after planting requires more thorough care - they need to be watered more often and in case of heat it is advisable to cover the first days with agril or burlap. You can soak the cuttings for 4-6 hours in growth stimulants. The question immediately arises - what to prefer. There are no universal advice here, but the most common recommendation is heteroauxin and indolylbutyric acid (Kornevin). You can try to pick up the rest of the stimulants. Read the instructions and give preference to those preparations that have recommendations for soaking the tubers. But there is no guarantee of a brilliant result - all growth stimulants act very individually,but if the desire of the plant and the capabilities of the stimulant coincide, the result will be very good. For example, badan takes root well and starts growing quickly if before planting, soak pieces of rhizomes for 6 hours in a solution of Epin-extra at a concentration of 0.1 ml / l.
In early May, you can divide high elecampane, marshmallow, purpurea echinacea, Ural and naked licorice, Caucasian and Nippon dioscorea.
I want to remind you that the surpluses remaining during the division of marshmallow, evading peony, thyroid podophyllum, tall elecampane, rhodiola rosea, thick-leaved bergenia may well be used as raw materials. They are washed in running water and dried in accordance with the characteristics of the raw materials. And the upper part with buds and adventitious roots (in elecampane) is planted in the soil.
When arnica propagates, the bush is dug, separate rosettes are separated and planted slightly deepening. The same should be done with the sandy immortelle, which should be transplanted every 2-3 years. Otherwise, its roots begin to crawl to the surface and the plant dies.
The planting distance depends on the adult size of the plant or, in scientific terms, its habit. If rhodiola or adonis can be planted at a distance of 20 cm from each other, then the distance between elecampane should be at least 50-60 cm, or even more. The planting depth also depends on the biological characteristics of the plant, the size of the cuttings and the soil. Usually it fluctuates within 5-15 cm. The lighter the texture of the soil, the deeper the plants need to be planted. After all, sand dries up much faster than heavy loam. But calamus and badan are planted in the same way as irises, almost superficially.
So there are no special tricks in vegetative reproduction, the main role in survival will be played by "postoperative care". After planting, the plants must be watered and preferably covered with dry peat on top, especially in autumn. This will both protect from cold and prevent drying out. If the spring is very hot, then the plantings need to be covered with agril or burlap.
The transplanted shrub growth must be cut with pruning shears, leaving 3-4 well-developed lower buds. In the future, this will facilitate the formation of a bush, such as a rose hip or sea buckthorn, and prevent excessive evaporation of moisture when the leaves open. After all, their root system is still very weak. As soon as the plants begin to grow, they can begin to be fed. But this is already a topic for a separate conversation.
And finally, about those plants that are categorically against such an operation. Gentians, lumbago, Baikal skullcap, Alpine and forgotten pennies and Astragalus are extremely negative about such an event. They even need to be transplanted to a permanent place at a young age and preferably with a lump of soil.
Photo: Rita Brilliantova
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