Green Walls

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Green Walls
Green Walls

Video: Green Walls

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Green Walls | Living Cities 2023, February
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Throughout history, plants decorate people's lives, evoke positive emotions, have a calming effect on the nervous system, reduce stress, and help overcome depression. The presence of living green plants in interiors has a beneficial effect on the general tone and performance of a person (Cherevchenko T.M. et al., 1988). This is especially important in the modern world.

"Green wall" is one of the most attractive types of phytocomposition, especially in those rooms where horizontal surfaces cannot be used.

Florarium
Florarium

Florarium

One of the earliest vertical gardening projects took place around 600 BC in ancient Babylon. This refers to the Hanging Gardens of Babylon - one of the seven wonders of the world. More modern methods of growing plants on the wall from containers with different substrates are described in 1965 (Salzer 1965), and the method of container vertical gardening was patented by Stanley Hart White in the 30s of the last century (Hindle RL A vertical garden: origins of the Vegetation-Bearing Architectonic Structure and System (1938), Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly, 2012, 32: 2, pp. 99-110.) (The New York Times (www. nytimes.com); Wikipedia (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_wall).

Currently, the Frenchman Patrick Blanc is considered the main ideologist of the idea of ​​vertical gardening. He created his first public composition using the author's technology of vertical gardening in 1994 at the Parisian landscape design festival (Blanc P. 2008). Vertical gardening systems are widespread in the USA, Europe, Australia, South Africa and other countries. Almost all of them are based on hydroponic systems (Antonov P. 2012, Saltser E. 1965, Lambertini A. 2007), although soil mixes are often used (Karpov A.A. 2002, Bagaeva N.V. 2011, Lysikov A. 2007, Uleiskaya L.I. 2001, Hession 2001.).

The work of Patrick Blanc. Paris
The work of Patrick Blanc. Paris

The work of Patrick Blanc. Paris

The difference in plant cultivation in hydroponics and in soil is significant. They are noticeable from the point of view of installation and maintenance of the system, plant care, and the duration of maintaining the decorative appearance.

The classification of methods (techniques) for decorating vertical surfaces with living plants has not yet developed. In general, there are “carpet” and modular landscaping (Mikhailova, Luferov 2013); by the type of soil (or lack thereof): on loose, fibrous or fractional media (website of the "ORLIWALL" company).

Below we give the classification of the types of "green walls", which seems to us the most rational.

Types of vertical wall landscaping

Traditional(Uleiskaya 2011, Lysikov 2007). Containers for planting plants are placed on the lower horizontal surface or buried in the floor against the wall. Supports for the stems of vines are mounted on a vertical surface. In some cases, the support not only rests on the wall, but is also fixed in the container or on the floor. Climbing plants of the size corresponding to the wall are selected, which are planted in prepared containers and fixed on a support against the wall. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are obvious. Plants receive the volume and area of ​​nutrition corresponding to their habitus, the care of such a green wall is traditional and comes down to timely watering and spraying. But if the plant loses its decorative effect or grows, then replacing it is almost impossible. Of course, this does not happen often, and other nearby plants quickly take the place of the fallen one.However, this does not happen overnight. In the same way, it is difficult to make such a decorative composition overnight, since during the transportation, planting and adaptation of large-sized vines to local conditions, the decorativeness of plants is often completely lost.

Traditional type of vertical gardening
Traditional type of vertical gardening

Traditional type of vertical gardening

Rock
Rock

Rock

"The Rock" (Cherevchenko et al., 1988). When creating winter gardens, at the stage of construction or major repairs, it is planned to erect a decorative wall with special places for plants. The phytocomposition is very decorative and easy to care for, but it does not always meet the task. This compositional solution resembles not so much a wall as a mountain slope. The decorative effect is largely due to the structure of the stone with which the surface is faced. The main composition costs are construction costs."Balcony" way(Weimer 1965, Hession 2001) - Plants are placed in hanging boxes. Boxes on brackets are attached to the wall, ampelous plants or small lianas are placed in them, which, hanging, cover the planting container and part of the wall. The volume of soil, small for the normal development of plants, and the place where the boxes are attached make it difficult to maintain this type of compositions. Sometimes containers with soil are placed on the floor of the upper flight of the stairs. Then the stems of the plants hang down, decorating the flight of stairs and, creating a curtain, masking a window or passage in the wall.

Oblique monstera is placed in hanging boxes
Oblique monstera is placed in hanging boxes

Oblique monstera is placed in hanging boxes

In the tropics, this solution looks more natural
In the tropics, this solution looks more natural

In the tropics, this solution looks more natural.

"Shelving" (Karpov A.A., 2002). The wall is the supporting structure for a row of shelves on which the plants are installed. If fastening the shelves to the wall is undesirable, then a rack structure is installed next to the wall, on which the plants are placed. Often the wall behind the rack is made mirrored, visually increasing the volume of the room. Plants usually do not completely cover the rack. Maintenance difficulties of this design usually do not arise.

Racks
Racks

Racks

Racks
Racks

Racks

Florarium
Florarium

Florarium

Florarium. Instead of a rack against the wall, you can install a mini greenhouse - florarium. The containers with plants are fixed on the walls and on decorative supports (snags).

  • Containers with hydroponics elements(Antonov 2012, Karpov 2002), Two types of containers are produced. Some are for plants. They are attached to the wall. Others are for the nutrient solution. They are installed on the floor. Plants without soil are placed in wall containers. The wall container may contain inert filler or sawdust. A nutrient solution is pumped to the plants from the lower container. The excess solution is drained by gravity into the same container. Such a simplified hydroponic system does not provide for the control of constantly changing nutrient concentrations and pH in solution. Disinfection of the solution from microorganisms is not provided. That is, the system is not designed for long-term autonomous operation. Sometimes this technical solution, like the following, is combined into one "aquarium type" of vertical gardening.
  • Pots on a grid during installation
    Pots on a grid during installation

    Pots on a grid during installation

    Carpet type(Pockets). (Antonov 2012, Lambertini 2007). A special inert substrate (made of plexiglass or polycarbonate) is fixed on the vertical surface, on which a canvas made of synthetic fabric with increased capillary properties and pockets sewn onto it is fixed. Plants with soil or inert filler (perlite, vermiculite) are placed in the pockets. The lower edge of the canvas is lowered into a tray filled with irrigation liquid. Irrigation liquid from a tray at the bottom of the "wall" is fed to a distributor comb located on the top of the canvas. To the disadvantages listed above: a small amount of food for plants, the lack of a method for disinfecting the solution and monitoring the concentration of nutrients and pH, the possibility of the development of algae and microorganisms on the "supporting" canvas is added,which increases the likelihood of allergic reactions.

    Carpet type
    Carpet type

    Carpet type

    Carpet type
    Carpet type

    Carpet type

    The bearing wall, substrate, "pockets", live and dead plants are clearly visible
    The bearing wall, substrate, "pockets", live and dead plants are clearly visible

    The bearing wall, substrate, "pockets", live and dead plants are clearly visible

    Russian version of "pockets" for vertical gardening of a street or balcony
    Russian version of "pockets" for vertical gardening of a street or balcony

    Russian version of "pockets" for vertical gardening of a street or balcony.

    "Painting" (Hession, 2001). Sometimes a phytocomposition is placed on the wall in the form of a picture. One or more pots are attached to a carrier sheet, which is fixed to the wall. The leaf with the planter is enclosed in a decorative frame. Usually, up to 6 pots are placed on a sheet. The number of sheets on the wall is determined based on the tasks assigned to the gardener. The disadvantages of this design are the small volume of soil, the difficulty of care (primarily watering and spraying) imply the regular replacement of plants that have lost their decorative effect.

    A type
    A type

    Type "Painting"

    a type
    a type

    type "Painting"

    "Column" (Self-supporting containers). The boxes with nutrient soil are stacked on top of each other. Holes for plants are made from the side or end of the box. Usually lettuce, strawberries or ampelous plants are planted in them. It is not possible to completely decorate the planting containers. Sometimes containers are collected near a wall, although support is not required. This arrangement solves the problem with soil volume, but further complicates maintenance and raises additional questions about the stability of the structure. The containers themselves must be strong enough to support the weight of the entire structure.

    Self-supporting containers
    Self-supporting containers

    Self-supporting containers

    Self-supporting containers
    Self-supporting containers

    Self-supporting containers

    "Container" (Hinged containers). (Bagaeva 2008, 2011). Plants are placed in container blocks of different capacities. The containers are filled with a substrate consisting of nutrient soil, vermiculite and sphagnum moss. The containers are mounted on a self-supporting (not requiring special support) frame made of a metal profile or mesh. A drip irrigation system is supplied to the container. To prevent possible overflow, a fine expanded clay drainage and a drainage system are usually placed in the lower part of the container.

    Rare Watering Container
    Rare Watering Container

    Rare Watering Container

    Honeycomb containers
    Honeycomb containers

    Honeycomb containers

    Greening of a cafe using containers of rare irrigation with a volume of 12 liters
    Greening of a cafe using containers of rare irrigation with a volume of 12 liters

    Greening of a cafe using containers of rare irrigation with a volume of 12 liters

    Block type. Plants are grown practically without an external pot, forming a block from the substrate (moss, bark), on which the plant is fixed. It is used only in conditions of high air humidity for growing epiphytic plants.

    Each of the listed methods of vertical gardening has positive and negative sides. The choice of this or that technology depends on the size and functionality of the room, material capabilities and aesthetic preferences. But all these techniques, methods and technologies are aimed at ensuring the life of plants included in the "green wall" and maintaining the decorative appearance of the composition as a whole.

    Containers - bottles on wire
    Containers - bottles on wire

    Containers - bottles on wire

    About the selection of plants for green walls - in the article Houseplants for green walls.

    List of references:

    1. Antonov Pavel. Fitostena: how to create a tropical garden at home. on Wed, 2012-18-01 - 16:52.
    2. Antonov Pavel. Phased creation of a phytowall in a residential interior on Wed 2012-25-01 - 11:16
    3. Bagaeva N.V. RF patent №76774 "Moss-peat block (options) and a hydroponic plant based on them" from 11.04.2008.
    4. Bagaeva N.V. RF patent No. 0104820 "Modular element and structures of a mixed type hydroponic plant for vertical gardening" dated 2011-27-05.
    5. Weimer M. Hanging gardens on the balcony and terrace M.: Lik press, 1998, 64 p.
    6. Patrick Blanc Vertical Gardens on Sun 2012-22-01 - 18:22.
    7. Salzer Ernst Hydroponics for amateurs. M.: Kolos, 1965, 158 p.
    8. Mikhailova, Luferov, 2013. Comparative characteristics of the methods of vertical gardening of the interior. Problems of nature conservation organization of landscapes. Materials int. scientific-practical conf., dedicated. 100th anniversary of the release of the first meliorator in Russia (April 24-25, 2013) / Ed. count.: S.S. Battering ram (editor-in-chief) and others; NGMA. - Novo-Cherkassk, 2013.
    9. A.A. Karpov Vertical gardening in the garden, in the yard, on the balcony. - M.: Phoenix, 2002.-- 240 p.
    10. Lysikov A. Vertical gardening of a country house and garden. - M.: Fiton +, 2007.-- 224 p.
    11. Uleiskaya L.I. Vertical gardening. Moscow: ZAO Fiton + 2001, 224 p.
    12. Hession D.G. All about container plants. M.: Kladez-Buks, 2001, 128 p.
    13. T.M. Cherevchenko and others. Tropical and subtropical plants of greenhouses. Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1988.-- 412 p.
    14. Blanc P. The Vertical Garden: In Nature and the City. Norton, 2008.-- 192 p.
    15. Richard L. Hindle (2012): A vertical garden: origins of the Vegetation-Bearing Architectonic Structure and System (1938), Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly, 32: 2, 99-110.
    16. Lambertini A. Vertical Gardens: Bringing the City to Life. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007.-- 240 p.

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