Potted Chrysanthemums

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Potted Chrysanthemums
Potted Chrysanthemums

Video: Potted Chrysanthemums

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Video: Make Your Chrysanthemums Bloom Every Year In Containers 2023, February
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Many people prefer to present potted chrysanthemums as a gift instead of a bouquet, because chrysanthemums with roots live longer than cut in water. It is in particular demand in the autumn period, when garden chrysanthemums have not yet faded in the open field. But it is sold almost all year round …

Chrysanthemum pot
Chrysanthemum pot

Chrysanthemum pot

The chrysanthemum began to be cultivated in Ancient China, then it came to Japan, where it is still very revered, and from there, much later, to Europe. And only in the XX century it began to be grown as a pot plant. In some European countries, chrysanthemum has become a symbol of motherhood, a traditional gift for Mother's Day.

More about the history of culture - in the article History of chrysanthemums. Eastern period

Blooming chrysanthemums can be obtained at any time, so it is almost all year round present in the range of flower shops. These are single-headed and bush cultivars of Indian chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) and its hybrids (Indicum Grp). Less common varieties of chrysanthemum mulberry, or Chinese (Chrysanthemum morifolium). But especially spectacular are the small-flowered varieties of various colors of the Korean chrysanthemum (Chtysanthemum x koreanum) of the Multiflora group, which often appear under the name Chrisanthemum multiflora, and are sold in pots or hanging pots, completely covered with abundant inflorescences.

Chrysanthemum indian
Chrysanthemum indian

Chrysanthemum indian

Under indoor conditions, chrysanthemum is undemanding to light and can continue to bloom for several more weeks, in optimal conditions - up to 2 months. Throughout this period, it will be a colorful accent on the windowsill in the house or office, on the garden patio, table or terrace. But it can be very difficult to preserve in room conditions and make chrysanthemum bloom again. However, even without inflorescences, keeping its carved leaves alive, chrysanthemum will improve the microclimate in the house: its fragrant foliage helps to cleanse the air from harmful impurities (formaldehyde, benzene, ammonia).

Home care

Blooming potted chrysanthemum is prepared for indoor growth and flowering. The main problem is the organization of optimal conditions for winter maintenance. So, let's divide the rules of leaving into two periods.

Spring Summer Autumn

Lighting. Place the plant in a bright light, the best location is an east window. To avoid overheating and early end of flowering, you will need protection from the scorching summer sun at midday. But the lack of light during growth will negatively affect the health and flowering of the plant.

It is advisable to take the chrysanthemum outdoors in the warm season - on a balcony, terrace or garden, it is better to grow it as a tub plant.

Chrysanthemum is a short-day plant, flower buds are set only during a short day, so the plant must be protected from excessive night illumination - a long day can cause early completion of flowering or a violation of flower buds. Flower formation begins when the day length is less than 14 hours, which naturally occurs by autumn. In industrial cultivation, the plants are immediately placed under conditions of 8-9 hours a day and, depending on the variety, they bloom 6-15 weeks after the start of induction.

Chrysanthemum indian
Chrysanthemum indian

Chrysanthemum indian

Watering. Regular watering during the growing stage is very important in caring for the chrysanthemum, it has a high transpiration rate. When selecting an irrigation regime, the earthen coma must not dry out and water stagnant in a pot or sump. Water after the top layer of the soil dries, carefully, without getting on the leaves, so as not to cause the occurrence of fungal diseases. It is advisable to water in the morning so that the leaves are dry by night.

Air humidity. During the period of active growth, it is desirable to maintain the humidity of 70-75%, during budding - 60-65%. Too high humidity can cause gray mold disease. Provide good air circulation around the plant to avoid excess moisture.

Temperature. Chrysanthemum feels quite comfortable at temperatures from +10 to +35 o C, with abundant watering in the open air, even the summer heat will not interfere with normal growth and flowering. At high temperatures in room conditions, buds can fall off, flowering ends quickly. The optimal temperature regime during growth narrows to + 18 + 22 o C, and during flowering - to + 12 + 16 o C.

Top dressing. Recently purchased plants do not require additional fertilizing in the current season, they are well filled with long-acting fertilizers. In subsequent years, they are fed with universal fertilizers for indoor plants according to the instructions. At the beginning of the growing season, more nitrogen fertilizers are applied, and from July the proportion of potassium and phosphorus is increased.

Soil and transplants. After the purchase, if the plant has become cramped in the pot, you can carefully transfer it to a slightly larger pot with the addition of ready-made peat, slightly acidic or neutral soil. For better drainage, add perlite to it. Chrysanthemum does not have special requirements for the soil, it is only important that it is not too acidic. Roots will develop better in loose and well-drained soil.

When growing chrysanthemums from your own cuttings, reload them as they grow, slightly increasing the volume of the soil. The root system of cuttings develops better in small volumes. For colorful flowering, you can plant several cuttings of the same or similar varieties in size.

Chrysanthemum pot
Chrysanthemum pot

Chrysanthemum pot

Reproduction is carried out mainly by dividing the bush or by cuttings. The division is carried out in the spring every 2-3 years.

Chrysanthemum is a short-lived plant, once every few years it should be renewed from cuttings, in this way you can save your favorite variety. Cuttings can be taken from a bush that has finished flowering in the fall. This is one way to preserve the plant in winter. Good cuttings are obtained from actively growing spring and summer shoots. The technology is usual: the stem with 4-5 leaves is cut off, the bottom leaf is removed, an oblique cut is made under it with a sharp blade, powdered with Kornevin and immersed 2 cm into the prepared soil (in equal parts a sterile peat substrate and perlite) or a peat tablet. The stalk is placed in a light greenhouse with high air humidity.

For more information on the technology of cuttings, see the article Cutting indoor plants at home.

Cuttings often produce taller chrysanthemums than the original mother plant. This is due to the technology of industrial cultivation with the use of retardants - substances that inhibit vegetative growth and accelerate flowering. The cuttings are already free of them and grow naturally. If the light regime is observed, the cuttings can bloom several months after rooting.

There is a small assortment of Korean chrysanthemum varieties on sale. Low-growing varieties can be grown from seed and in a pot culture. But practically this method is not used.

Seeds are sown in March. At a temperature of about + 21 + 23 o C, seedlings will appear in 1-3 weeks. Seeds can be sown earlier, but additional artificial lighting will be required for the normal development of young plants during the winter months. Seedlings bloom in autumn.

Trimming and pinching. As the chrysanthemums grow, it is recommended to shorten the shoots several times per season. In the second year after buying a potted plant or when growing from cuttings taken from such a plant, new shoots are often taller, since the effect of retardants ends. For chrysanthemums, pinching (removing the very tip of the shoot) is preferable to pruning. This causes branching and more abundant flowering in the fall. Some growers carry out a pinch every few weeks until July. The last pinching should be done about 100 days before the expected flowering.

Chrysanthemum pot
Chrysanthemum pot

Chrysanthemum pot

Wintering methods for potted chrysanthemums

In a cool room. This place can be a frost-insulated balcony with a temperature of about + 3 + 8 on S. Plant shortened to a few centimeters, the soil is kept in a slightly moist. You can place the pot in a cool, but frost-free basement or cellar where it is important to maintain good ventilation to avoid rot. It will be possible to expose to light in late February - early March.

Indoor conditions. If there is no cool place, try to find a cool place away from heaters on a light windowsill. It is desirable that the temperature does not exceed +15 o C. Dry stems and leaves, faded flowers are removed from the plant. Provides moderate watering. This method of wintering is more difficult for a plant, in warmth and with a lack of light, the plant is quickly depleted, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, which can result in death. After flowering, it is safer to take cuttings, root them and keep them under bright light in a moderately warm room in winter at a temperature of about + 15 + 18 o C.

Outdoors. You can stop at this method if there is no way to create suitable conditions at home, and the plant is still doomed to death. Potted chrysanthemums of the Indica group have a chance to winter only in the warmest regions of Russia. As for the varieties of Korean chrysanthemum Multiflora, it is difficult to predict in advance the winter hardiness of a particular variety. But often plants overwinter even in the suburbs. Plant the chrysanthemum in the garden in a drained place in the summer (autumn plantings invariably die), with the onset of frost, cut the stems a few centimeters, cover with a layer of dry foliage, and cover with a piece of roofing material on top, leaving vents. In spring, chrysanthemums do not wake up immediately, do not rush to plant other plants in this place until June.

Korean chrysanthemum Rosanna
Korean chrysanthemum Rosanna

Korean chrysanthemum Rosanna

Diseases and pests

Fungal diseases cause various types of spotting:

powdery mildew - the leaves are covered with a white powdery bloom. Heat and lack of moisture contribute to the occurrence.

  • gray rot - brown spots appear on the inflorescences, later they turn into a brown rotten mass. On the affected lower parts of the plant, an abundant gray coating of fungal sporulation is formed. Good room ventilation and careful watering without wetting the leaves reduces the likelihood of disease.
  • leaf septoria - extensive, almost black spots with a yellow border appear on the leaves. It is necessary to improve ventilation and lighting.
  • rust - yellowish spots form on the upper side of the leaf, and brownish-yellowish spore growths form in these places below.
  • verticillary wilting is a disease that affects the vascular vessels of a plant. It starts from the roots, then the conducting vessels are gradually clogged with a fungus, and the plant gradually withers. On the cut of the stem, you can see a ring of dark vessels. The disease cannot be treated, the plant is removed.

If a fungal disease is found, the affected parts should be removed and treated with an appropriate fungicide.

Viral diseases cause dwarfism, mosaic leaves, greening of inflorescences. Affected plants are burned.

Pests

aphid affects the tops of the shoots, leaves, covering them with a dense layer.

  • thrips leaves whitish spots on the leaves, which later turn brown. Affects inflorescences, causing their abnormal development.
  • spider mites damage the underside of a leaf by feeding on cell sap. With a strong defeat, a cobweb is visible, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. High temperature and dry air promote reproduction.

If pests are found, the plant should be treated with an insecticide (from aphids, thrips) or acaricide (from a spider mite).

Read more about pest and disease control in the article Pests of indoor plants and control measures

Chrysanthemum indian
Chrysanthemum indian

Chrysanthemum indian

Photo: Maxim Minin, Rita Brilliantova, GreenInfo.ru

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