Table of contents:
- Organic, organomineral and bacterial fertilizers
- Bacterial fertilizers
- Organomineral biostimulating fertilizers
Video: The Choice Of Fertilizers For Plant Nutrition
There are two systems of plant nutrition that are interrelated and inseparable. It is nutrition through leaves and roots, and one cannot replace the other. The leaves produce carbohydrates from air, sun and water and send them to the root system. In turn, mineral elements are supplied from the roots to the leaves. The latter can also enter the plant through the leaves, then they are quickly absorbed, therefore foliar feeding on a green leaf can be called an ambulance in emergency situations. However, it cannot replace root nutrition. Foliar dressing, as a rule, is used in cases when it is necessary to quickly make up for the lack of a certain food element. Another situation is when the root system does not work well or stops functioning altogether, for example,with prolonged (more than 5-7 days) cooling and a decrease in soil temperature to + 8 ° C.
Many external factors affect plant nutrition: the concentration of the soil solution, air, water and thermal regimes of the soil:
An excess of nutrients in the soil is harmful to plants and can lead to their death. The concentration of the nutrient solution should not exceed 0.2-0.3%. This means that for top dressing, you cannot take more than 20-30 g of any nutrient salts per 10 liters of water (1 tablespoon / 10 liters). The influence of the thermal regime of the soil on plant nutrition is that the roots cannot assimilate nutrients at low temperatures. In spring and autumn, when the average daily air temperature does not exceed 10-11º, the roots practically do not work. Therefore, you should not apply fertilizer in the snow or as soon as the plants start to grow. It is for the same reason that in the spring it is useful to give plants foliar feeding on leaves with one of the fast-acting soluble inorganic fertilizers - ammonium nitrate (but not urea) or "Uniflor - Growth" (NPKg / l 70-26-70, Mg-5, S-6,6 + ME + growth stimulants). In nitrate, nitrogen is in an ionic form available to plants; urea has a different nitrogen, and it is better to add it when filling planting holes. It is especially undesirable to use this fertilizer on light soils (sandy and sandy loam), since they poorly retain the ammonia formed during the decomposition of ammonium carbonate (urea in the soil passes into it). It should be remembered that plants do not assimilate nitrogen from urea at temperatures below + 12 ° C. However, overheated soil also negatively affects plant nutrition. The optimum temperature for normal plant nutrition is about + 20 ° C. Mulching of plants helps to prevent overheating of roots in summer.It is especially undesirable to use this fertilizer on light soils (sandy and sandy loam), since they poorly retain the ammonia formed during the decomposition of ammonium carbonate (urea in the soil passes into it). It should be remembered that plants do not assimilate nitrogen from urea at temperatures below + 12 ° C. However, overheated soil also negatively affects plant nutrition. The optimum temperature for normal plant nutrition is about + 20 ° C. Mulching of plants helps to prevent overheating of roots in summer.It is especially undesirable to use this fertilizer on light soils (sandy and sandy loam), since they poorly retain the ammonia formed during the decomposition of ammonium carbonate (urea in the soil passes into it). It should be remembered that plants do not assimilate nitrogen from urea at temperatures below + 12 ° C. However, overheated soil also negatively affects plant nutrition. The optimum temperature for normal plant nutrition is about + 20 ° C. Mulching of plants helps to prevent overheating of roots in summer.However, overheated soil also negatively affects plant nutrition. The optimum temperature for normal plant nutrition is about + 20 ° C. Mulching of plants helps to prevent overheating of roots in summer.However, overheated soil also negatively affects plant nutrition. The optimum temperature for normal plant nutrition is about + 20 ° C. Mulching of plants helps to prevent overheating of roots in summer.
Each element of mineral nutrition plays a certain role in the metabolism of plants and cannot be completely replaced by any other element. Everyone knows about the important role of nitrogen and potassium, but phosphorus is equally important. Its deficiency at the beginning of development leads to long-term oppression of the plant, which practically cannot be corrected. It is for this reason that in the early stages of growth it is necessary to use complex fertilizers, not nitrogen fertilizers, as is usually recommended. An excellent water-soluble phosphorus and potassium fertilizer - potassium monophosphate.
Organic and mineral fertilizers are best known in horticultural practice.
About mineral fertilizers - in the article Mineral fertilizers for garden plants.
Organic, organomineral and bacterial fertilizers
They supply the soil with food for numerous soil microorganisms, as a result of which plants receive nutrients in a form available to them. We can say that organic matter feeds the soil from which plants take nutrients. Therefore, organic fertilizers can be called "long-lasting". However, one should not think that the more of them in the soil, the better. The uncontrolled use of organic fertilizers is fraught with serious imbalances in plant nutrition. Most often, there is an excess of nitrogen, which stimulates the violent growth of green mass, but weakens flowering and fruiting. In addition, plants overfed with nitrogen accumulate a large amount of nitrates.
According to the World Health Organization, manure is a potential source of about 100 species of pathogens of human and animal diseases. Therefore, modern agrochemistry has taken the path of using manure not as a finished product, but as a raw material for the production of fertilizers. In the process of processing, all pathogens are neutralized and the agrochemical parameters of the feedstock are improved. It is also important that such fertilizers are more economical, more convenient and more pleasant to use, since they are devoid of the repulsive look and smell inherent in manure.
"Flumb", "Bucephal", "Kaury", "Radogor" - liquid fertilizers made on the basis of natural manure and containing useful microflora and organo-mineral substances. They include macro- and microelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, boron, molybdenum), as well as humates, which are perfectly balanced and give the soil the necessary nutrition. 1 liter of each extract contains the same amount of nutrients as 18 buckets of liquid manure.
After the processing of manure by Californian worms, vermicompost is formed, which is similar in all respects to the humus of the most fertile chernozems. According to the main parameters, vermicompost surpasses all organic fertilizers, and the rate of its introduction into the soil is 10 times less than that of manure. On the basis of vermicompost, liquid universal flower fertilizers are produced: " Rainbow" (NPK 10:10:10 g / l, humic substance - 2 g / l, pH 8-10), " Ideal" (NPK 5:10:10 g / l, gum. material - 2 g / l, pH 8-10), " New Ideal" (NPK 3.5: 6: 7 g / l, gum. material - 2 g / l, pH 7.5-8, 5), "Flower" (6.5: 5.5: 9.5). They are intended for root and foliar dressing, soaking seeds, bulbs and tubers.
"Ideal" and "New Ideal"
"Supercompost Peaks" is a bioorganic fertilizer based on peat, sawdust and special microorganisms. Pixa contains macronutrients (N: P: K 2.5: 1: 1) and organic matter (up to 35%). Its introduction improves soil fertility and plant productivity. In terms of nutrients, 1 kg of supercompost is equivalent to 50 kg of manure. The beneficial effect of the fertilizer lasts 2-3 years.
"Piksa Lux" includes two bioadditives - soil micro-root and activates MB. Micro-root soil contains bacteria that attract additional nitrogen and convert soil potassium and phosphorus into forms available for plant nutrition. Its main influence is the development of the root system of plants. Activit MB consists of natural stimulants-accelerators (plant gibberellins). It promotes accelerated growth and ripening of fruits, increased productivity of agricultural crops when used in micro doses.
In addition to these two additives, Piksa Premium also has a vitamin biocomplex that activates growth and strengthens the root system of plants. The biocomplex includes B vitamins, indoleacetic and gibberellic acids, which are deficient for plants. As a result, the yield increases, and the content of nitrates is reduced by more than 2 times.
Organomineral fertilizers (OMU). They include mineral compounds and organic substances. The utilization rate of nutrients reaches 90-95%. An important property of WMD is its prolonged action (up to three years). It was found that their use increases the content of organic matter in the soil by an average of 20%. The yield of crops is increased by about 30%, and the products themselves are of better quality. Thus, potato tubers are larger and smoother in comparison with those grown without WMD. Complex organic fertilizers are produced in Russia, the organic component of which is humates.
For filling planting pits and preparing the soil for flower crops, we recommend soft organic fertilizers "GUMI-OMI AZOT", "GUMI-OMI KALIUM", "GUMI-OMI FOSFOR" from Bashincom. These preparations contain microbiologically fermented organic fertilizer (20%) together with urea (25%), potassium sulfate (25%), superphosphate (25%), humate (0.4-0.6%) and natural trace elements (boron 100-150 mg / kg, copper 50-60 mg / kg).
OMU "ISPOLIN" universal (NPK 2,5-4,5-9 + Ca 1,0 + humates 2,0 + ME) combines all the advantages of mineral and organic fertilizers. In addition to the universal "Giant", there are special ones - vegetable, potato, berry.
OMU "Universal" (NPK 7-7-8 + Mg 1.5 + humates 2.6 + ME) is used for growing any garden and ornamental crops. Used for feeding and when digging the soil.
OMU "Flower" (NPK 7-7-8 + Mg 1.5 + humates 2.6 + ME) has a special composition that meets the needs of indoor, balcony, garden flowers. When planting flower seedlings, 20 g of fertilizer are introduced into the hole and thoroughly mixed with the ground. Under perennial flower crops (roses, peonies, phloxes, etc.), 80-100 g of fertilizer are applied when planting.
These are specially multiplied pure bacteria, getting into the soil, they turn nutrients inaccessible to plants into available ones. The main advantage of bacterial fertilizers is that they are environmentally friendly. Traditional bacterial fertilizers include nitragin, azotobacterin, silicate bacteria preparation, phosphobacterin, AMB preparation. These preparations are not very common in our summer cottages for the simple reason that very few of them are required for feeding, and manufacturers produce fertilizers in large canisters. As a result, summer residents used fertilizers containing only some bacterial preparations (Superkompost Piksa, Zaslon).
Azotovit and Phosphatovit. Photo: E.M. Dorokhova
Most recently, microbiological fertilizers of the Azotovit and Phosphatovit brands appeared on the domestic market.in a small package, however, their shelf life is 9 months. "Azotovit" is unique in that it accumulates nitrogen directly from the air (where it is almost 80%), and "Phosphatovit" converts potassium and phosphorus from immobile forms to mobile (water-soluble) ones. The use of these fertilizers leads to an increase in useful microflora in the soil, not only supplying plants with additional amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but also contributing to the improvement and restoration of soil fertility, suppression of pathogenic microflora. Doses of drugs are 30 ml / 10 l / 10 sq. m. Ornamental plants are fed with these two preparations once every 2-3 weeks during the entire growing season. Both preparations are applied under berry and vegetable crops before the budding phase begins, and then only Phosphatovit is used.These preparations can be used not only for feeding vegetative plants, but also for watering the soil before planting or during transplantation and for pre-sowing treatment of planting material.
Organomineral biostimulating fertilizers
A whole series of new organomineral biostimulating fertilizers have appeared, which are used simultaneously for plant nutrition and protection. These are such drugs as ACTIVAYN, VIVA, KENDAL, MEGAFOL, RADIFARM, SWIT from Valagro.
ACTIVEINE (d.v.: organic matter - 17%, potassium - 6%, iron - 0.5%, zinc - 0.08%). A special fertilizer to accelerate the absorption of nutrients and protect against stressful situations.
- VIVA (d.v.: proteins, peptides, amino acids, polysaccharides, humic acids, vitamin complex - B1, B6, PP, folic acid, inositol). A special fertilizer that affects both the root system and the activity of the soil microflora.
- KENDAL (d.v.: organic nitrogen, oligosaccharides, glutathione) is a liquid fertilizer for all crops with the ability to increase the activity of the endogenous system of plant defense mechanisms.
- MEGAFOL (d.v.: amino acids - 28%, organic nitrogen - 4.5%, potassium - 2.9%, organic carbon - 15%). When combined with foliar feeding, Megafol enhances the effect of fertilizers. It can be used in conjunction with pesticides to improve processing efficiency.
- RADIPHARM (d.v.: polysaccharides, steroids, glucosides, amino acids and betaine, vitamins B1, B6 and trace elements Zn, Fe). An organo-mineral fertilizer that allows you to reduce the stress caused by transplanting (planting) a plant. Promotes the rapid rooting of seedlings, shrubs, trees, conifers, flowers.
- SWIT (d.v.: mono-, di-, polysaccharides - 25%, uronic acids - 0.2%, macroelements CaO, MgO - 11%, trace elements B, Zn, Co - 0.23%). Biostimulator of the intensity of color of fruits and flowers.
Successful plant cultivation is possible only with a reasonable combination of mineral and organic fertilizers. Advice to use in high concentrations of copper and iron salts is very harmful. Metals accumulate in the soil and negatively affect its health and fertility. No matter how perfect the fertilizer - whatever is written on the packaging about its balance and ecological purity - it inevitably disrupts the natural, natural balance of plant substances, therefore, if possible, switch to organo-mineral, bacterial fertilizers and green manures.
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