To quickly and dosed feed garden plants, it is convenient to use mineral fertilizers. The elements of mineral nutrition of plants include primarily macro- (N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, B, Cu, Zn, Mn, etc.). The introduction of dry mineral fertilizers in the aisles is far from the best way to fertilize. It is much more efficient to use solutions.
According to the international agreement of manufacturers, all fertilizers have 3 numbers on the packaging, separated by a dash, where the first corresponds to the nitrogen content (N), the second to forfor (P) and the third to potassium (K). These three numbers contain a lot of useful information. With their help, you can get the following information:
- Depleted or enriched is this complex fertilizer. To do this, add up all 3 numbers that make up the formula. By subtracting the amount received from 100, you can find out how much ballast, that is, useless salts, is contained in the fertilizer. If the useful component is less than 30% - the fertilizer is poor, from 30 to 40% - the indicators are average, above 40% - we have an enriched fertilizer;
- Fertilizer application season. If the first number (nitrogen) is more than 16, then the fertilizer is intended for spring application, when there is active growth and an increase in green mass. And, for example, the ratio of 0.5: 10: 20 or 1.5: 12: 25 indicates that the nitrogen content is scanty. Therefore, fertilization should be applied in the fall, when active growth has ended, and the need for nitrogen has decreased to a minimum, but the need for phosphorus and potassium has increased.
The most famous domestic complex fertilizers: nitroammofoska (17:17: 17 = 54), diammofoska (10:26: 26 = 62), azofoska (16: 16: 16 = 48), nitrophoska (11:10: 11 = 32). Of these, only diammophoska is more or less soluble in water.
In addition to the total amount of nutrients in the fertilizer, the ratio of nitrogen and potassium should also be taken into account. They compete with each other, and nitrogen is more active. Even with an equal ratio (1: 1), nitrogen will be absorbed mainly. Therefore, in enriched fertilizers, the optimal ratio of nitrogen and potassium should be 1: 2, 1: 1.5. It is with these proportions that potassium can compete on equal terms with nitrogen and be absorbed in the required amount. Unfortunately, there are few such Russian fertilizers. Among them:
"Solution grade A" (NPK 10: 5: 20 + 6% magnesium + trace elements),
- Aquarine "Flower" (NPK 13: 5: 25),
- "Flower Paradise" (NPK 23: 7.5: 45.5 g / l + magnesium 2.6 g / l + ME).
- "Aquadon Micro" (Magnesium + 7 ME) is a polymer-chelate complex with a wide composition of microelements. The unique component of the preparation is the Acremon polymer, which has adhesive properties and ensures the delivery of microelements to plants in the most accessible form.
- "Aquamix" contains 7 microelements (iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, calcium).
- On the domestic market, the best fertilizer with an extended composition of microelements is Uniflor Micro (Magnesium + 21 ME), a liquid concentrated fertilizer with a unique set of 21 microelements in the form of chelates. It is used for soaking (5 ml / 100 ml of water) seeds, bulbs and tubers for 6-8 hours, for root and foliar feeding of plants.
- Uniflor series. Fertilizers Uniflor belong to the group of liquid mineral fertilizers with an extended trace element set in the form of chelates. The Uniflor series includes the universal microfertilizer “Uniflor Micro” and complete fertilizers with various NPK compositions: “Uniflor-growth”, “Uniflor-variegated leaf”, “Uniflor-bud”, “Uniflor-flower”. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, complete fertilizers also contain the macronutrients necessary for plants - magnesium and sulfur, as well as a set of 18 trace elements.
- " Uniflor-growth " (NPK g / l 70-26-70, Mg-5, S-6.6 + ME + growth stimulants) is a complete fertilization with a predominance of nitrogen. Provides the best green mass growth. It is intended for the initial stage of growing seedlings and decorative deciduous plants.
- " Uniflor-variegated leaf " (NPK g / l 52-32-52, Mg-5, S-6.6 + ME + growth stimulants) - for variegated indoor plants. Complete fertilizer with optimal nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus content.
- “Uniflor-Bud” (NPK g / l 47-32-88, Mg-5, S-6.6 + ME) is a complete fertilizer for flowering and fruit crops with a predominance of potassium and phosphorus. Stimulates budding, flowering, ripening of fruits and seeds.
- "Uniflor-flower" (NPK g / l 47-32-88, Mg-5, S-6.6 + ME + growth stimulator) is a complete fertilizer for flowering plants with a high content of potassium and phosphorus. It ensures good growth and abundant flowering.
Complex mineral fertilizers "Flower Paradise"
Approaches them in composition "New wagon" (NPK 10: 10: 15 + 2MgO + ME) - a granular highly effective complex fertilizer with microelements in a chelated form for feeding vegetables, fruit and berry and ornamental crops.
The majority of domestic fertilizers, unfortunately, do not contain trace elements, therefore it is necessary to use mixtures containing them:
Cytovit (NPK 30: 5: 25 g / l, 10 microelements: magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, boron, zinc and copper, molybdenum, cobalt). The fertilizer contains a complex of microelements in a chelated form together with macroelements. The greatest effect is achieved with the joint treatment of seeds, seedlings and vegetative plants with a mixture of "Citovita" with "Epin" or "Zircon".
For fertilizing open ground plants, vegetables, fruit trees, shrubs, seedlings in the last phase of cultivation, solutions of 2.5-3 ml / 1 l of water / 1 sq. m with a frequency of feeding 1 time in 10-15 days. When processing seedlings at the initial stage of growing, the amount of the drug is reduced to 2 ml / l. For foliar dressing, a concentration of 1 ml / l / 5-10 sq. m.
For conifers, two dressings per season are quite enough. The first is done with full fertilizer Uniflor-Bud in May, when growth points wake up. This fertilizer contains little nitrogen, magnesium and 18 trace elements. The second is done only with Uniflor-micro micronutrient fertilizer at the end of August to ripen the annual growth and prepare for wintering. For the first feeding, it is necessary to add 2-3 ml of the drug per coniferous plant, diluted in 1-5 liters of water, which are evenly distributed along the near-stem circle.
When fertilizing lawns, you need a lot of nitrogen. Therefore, for the first feeding in May, you should use Uniflor-growth with a high nitrogen content. The second feeding in August is the same as for conifers - Uniflorom-micro. Application rates: first feeding - Uniflor-growth 2-3 ml / sq.m.; the second feeding is Uniflor-micro 0.5 ml / sq.m. Regardless of the method of irrigation - from a watering can or by sprinkling, the irrigation solution must be highly diluted, since in essence such a top dressing is obtained by foliar application.
The need for flowers in the amount of fertilizer is higher than that of conifers and lawns. In the spring, it is recommended to apply Uniflor-growth with a high nitrogen content, and then switch to Uniflor-bud with a high potassium and phosphorus content. If, along with decorative deciduous plants, there are flowering plants in the flower garden, then the use of Uniflor-variegated leaf may be optimal, which contains somewhat more nitrogen than Uniflor-bud, but less than Uniflor-growth.
Organic, organomineral and bacterial fertilizers - in the article Choosing fertilizers for plant nutrition.