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Rose Jean Cocteau (Meilland, 2009)
What do we look at when choosing the next variety of roses from the catalog? Naturally, a flower. And fascinated by the next masterpiece, we forget about many other characteristics that play an essential role for the long existence of a plant in our climate. And this is winter hardiness, and disease resistance, etc.
Currently, there are already more than 20 companies on the Russian market - suppliers of planting material for roses from different countries of Europe and America. Although only 15 years ago the German company W.Kordes Sohne was a pioneer in this area. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that the bulk of suppliers are at the same time the originators of their varieties. Although there are companies that only propagate and grow seedlings using already known varieties.
Over the past time, it has been possible to test for endurance in the middle lane, many varieties of roses from different producers. And naturally, there were some disappointments that prompted a cause analysis. Of course, subjective reasons were not excluded, but objective ones nevertheless emerged.
Rose is a thermophilic culture, and the climatic conditions of central Russia are considered not quite suitable for rose growing. Therefore, the use of own-rooted seedlings for soil planting is possible only for a very limited number of groups and varieties: ground cover, polyanthus, old garden roses (not all varieties), Canadian and some varieties of climbing ramblers. For all other groups of roses, self-rooted specimens are, at best, juveniles.
The main industrial way of propagation of soil varietal roses in nurseries is grafting, not cuttings, which is typical for amateur rose growing. And for most of Russia, the use of grafted seedlings is also a necessity, because only in this way is it possible to increase frost resistance.
Any graft is a complex biological structure consisting of a rootstock and a scion. Let's take a closer look at this construction.
Rose Edith Piaf (Meilland, 1999)
Rose Rody (Tantau, 1995)
As a rootstock for ground roses, seedlings of one of the types of roses are usually used. Moreover, each manufacturing company selects individual rootstocks, pursuing its specific goals. Keep in mind that rootstocks are grown from seeds. And this means that the plants are not aligned in terms of growth. Subsequently, this leads to a different strength of the final, grafted plant.
The stock is not an indifferent substrate. It brings a number of properties to the behavior of the final plant, including increases frost resistance, determines the number of stems in the bush, the state of the root system, the timing of sap flow, the presence or absence of root growth.
Rose The Fairy
Black forest rose
The following types of roses are most commonly used for growing rootstocks:
dog rose (Rosa with anina). Many varieties are used. Characteristic features: in the conditions of central Russia in winter it has a deep dormant period and does not react to short-term thaws. Provides a quick mass growth of a bush with a large number of branches.
- multifloral rose (Rosa multiflora). The main disadvantage of this species is that in the case of winter thaws, it very quickly leaves the dormant state, which negatively affects overwintering. This rootstock is mainly used by Meilland Richardier. This is the least favorable option for Russia.
- steppe rose, or loose rosehip(Rosa laxa). Characteristic features: in the conditions of central Russia in winter it has a deep dormant period and does not react to short-term thaws. It has white numerous filamentous roots that penetrate deep into the soil. This is especially important for light, quickly drying soils. Undemanding to soil fertility. Has a good combination of frost resistance and drought resistance. Virtually no wild animals. It quickly comes out of dormancy, which allows the scion to start a full-fledged growing season earlier, lengthening the summer season. Roses on Lax rootstock retain the varietal color of flowers well, which is especially important for yellow and apricot tones. Among the disadvantages: rather long survival rate of the seedling; limited branching of the bush; after 5-6 years of growing, the transplant is impossible, because the roots go down to a depth of 1 m.
This is a part (stalk or bud) of a cultivated plant that carries the genetic characteristics of the variety (growth rate, bush shape, flower shape and color, need for heat and light, resistance or susceptibility to diseases, etc.).
Now, knowing the terms of success or failure, it is possible to predict the behavior of the whole grafted plant, depending on the growing conditions and climatic characteristics.
The experience of using the planting material supplied by numerous companies to Russia has shown that the most stable in the middle lane are the seedlings of W.Kordes Sohne and David Austin. This is understandable. The general line of selection of the firm "W.Kordes Sohne" is to obtain varieties of roses highly resistant to unfavorable conditions. It is "W.Kordes Sohne" that is the owner of the largest number of ADR marks (Allgemeine Deutsche Rosenneuheitenprufung). These marks are awarded by a Special Commission in Germany, which monitors the behavior of the tested variety for 3 years. Moreover, no measures of stimulation or protection of plants are used.
The company uses dog rose seedlings as a stock. The established seedlings grow well and, with careful care, they live well and live for a long time (for more than 15 years). Based on the many terms of obtaining a high-quality seedling (rootstock / scion), it is clear that there are attacks. Still, for most varieties of W.Kordes Sohne breeding, planting another specimen of the same variety, as a rule, ended in success. This fact indicates the different viability of the seedlings, and not at all about the instability of the variety itself in our conditions.
Now about the roses of the firm "David Austin". This refers to seedlings supplied from the UK or other production sites of the company, because it is they who are grafted onto the Lax rose. Other suppliers may use a different rootstock and therefore the behavior of the seedling may be different. Here is the same picture as with roses from W.Kordes Sohne ". There have been attacks. But basically," Ostinki "grow beautifully and bloom in our gardens for more than ten years.
And now a few words about the behavior of the same variety of roses in different climatic conditions. There is an opinion that the middle zone of Russia is not the best place for growing roses. Indeed, it makes no sense to argue with this, tk. for roses, as a heat-loving culture, we do not have enough sum of positive temperatures. But there is one more factor worth talking about. This is the genetic biography of the variety. And genetics is a stubborn lady, you can't argue with her. She does not give in to any tricks on our part. And this means that if the progenitors of the variety had an instability to diseases, then regardless of the geographical latitude of its growth, under unfavorable climatic conditions, the plants of this variety will be sick. It is to this conclusion that the author has led many years of observation of the behavior of various varieties of roses on the Cote d'Azur,or rather, in the Princess Grace Rose Park in Monaco.
The park is located in a quiet area of Fontviel and initially covered an area of 4 hectares. A small lake in the middle is surrounded by palms and olive trees. But the main attraction to this place is given by the Rose Park, which Prince Rainier III created in memory of his wife Princess Grace. Grace Kelly was a Hollywood actress originally from Philadelphia who ended her film career for the sake of marriage. Despite her short creative life, the American Film Institute ranked her 13th in the list of "100 Greatest Movie Stars". She was the princess of Monaco from 1956 to 1982, she lived for only 53 years. Now the country is ruled by her son Albert II.
Rose Park first opened on June 18, 1984. In 2014, to celebrate the garden's 30th anniversary, members of the royal family renovated it, expanding it by another 1 hectare and adding new plantings. On one of the stone tablets, you can read the statement of Princess Grace: “What is so special about a rose that it seems more than a flower? Perhaps this is a secret that she gains with age. Perhaps this is the joy she continues to give."
Here you can see rare roses such as the rose of the Grimaldi royal family, as well as roses named after princes, princesses and other celebrities. Using QR codes, you can get to know each variety. The Rosary seeks to obtain the Eco Garden sign, since everything here is grown in an environmentally friendly way.
A large number of rose varieties from various European and American breeders have been planted in the garden. Many of the presented varieties grow successfully in Russia. Imagine my surprise that the varieties that are sick in our country behave similarly in the southern regions. It seems that only the weather factors that lead to disease outbreaks differ. We tend to have wet and cool weather, while in the south it is most likely dry heat. Here are some statistics for Monaco. The largest number of varieties is represented by the French company Meilland Richardier, but they also have the largest percentage of diseased varieties (23%). The varieties of W.Kordes Sohne have a minimal proportion of sick varieties (13%). We have a similar picture.
And one more observation. The entire Queen Anna bush (David Austin) was severely affected by powdery mildew, while other varieties showed excellent health.
Rose Queen Anna (Austin, 2012)
Therefore, when choosing a variety for your garden, it is always better to first familiarize yourself with all the possible characteristics of the variety. And if desire prevails over reason, then it is better to take preventive measures to help the plant stay healthy.
Photo by the author from Princess Grace Rose Park in Monaco