Table of contents:
- About varieties of decorative peppers
- How to grow peppers at home
- We learned something, let's start sowing
- Further care
Video: We Grow Decorative Peppers At Home
Decorative pepper (Capsicum annum)
Ornamental peppers, of course, are interesting precisely during the fruiting period. Its fruits are very pungent, therefore they are rarely used in cooking, but they are still sometimes used. However, many amateurs grow it just like that, for beauty.
Ornamental pepper is considered to be an annual crop, although botanically this is not entirely true. Annual, or bush pepper (Capsicum annum syn. Capsicum frutescens) is a perennial plant belonging to the nightshade, and is a shrub. And it is grown most often as an annual, especially in the open field. But today we'll talk about growing annual peppers on a windowsill.
It is interesting that this plant is not at all a baby, it can gradually grow, stretch and eventually reach a solid 1.5 m, but the fruits of pepper collected from such a bush are considered to be berries.
Variety of hot pepper fruits
Pepper has a rich history that began many centuries and even millennia before our era in Central America. Capsicum came to our country relatively recently, some 300 years ago. It was then called paprika and was grown both in indoor and outdoor conditions. After harvesting, the plant could dry out and die, from this it is possible that the opinion went that the pepper is one year old, however, many varieties give a tangible harvest for 3-4 years.
About varieties of decorative peppers
Modern cultivars are much more modest in size and rarely exceed a height of 0.5 m. These plants are designed to give joy and beauty with their rich green foliage and fruits completely different in color, size and shape, which have become such thanks to the efforts of breeders from different countries. 21 varieties are registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation.
While we're on the subject of varieties, here are some of those that are great for growing in a room:
Aladdin - ripens very quickly and bears many fruits. The growth of the bush is about 35 cm, the berries are in the shape of an elongated cone, they are very sharp and fragrant. At the beginning of their ripening, the berries are purple in color, then they become deep purple.
- Spark - perfect for kitchen conditions, ripens in medium terms, usually 110-125 days after germination. Fully ripe fruits have a rich scarlet hue, an elongated shape and a smooth surface. The taste is naturally spicy, well, and the height of the bush rarely exceeds 50 cm.
- Poinsettia - gives us berries of an elongated shape, scarlet, when fully ripe, color. It is interesting that these berries are placed at the very tips of the shoots and the bush in the fruits looks like a bouquet. As for the height, 40 cm is the limit, and this is not much when compared with the length of the fruits, which sometimes reach 8 cm. The taste is spicy.
- Garda Firewoks - is distinguished by gorgeous fruiting, the length of the berries reaches 6 cm, they are located like candles - directed upwards. It is interesting that when ripe, the peppercorns change their color to a very different one. And at the same time, the plant can have fruits colored in scarlet, purple, yellowish and greenish colors. Strong acuity.
- Explosive Ember - plant height usually does not exceed 35 cm. It differs from other varieties for its wonderful dark-purple leaves. The very first berries appear 110-125 days after germination. The taste is very spicy. Fully ripe peppercorns are colored scarlet, they have an oblong shape and a size not exceeding 3 cm.
- Red Rocket is a small plant, only 20 cm tall. Fruits are traditional cone-shaped, changing color from green to yellow and red. Are considered inedible. The variety is due to the fact that the fruits remain on the plant for a long time, from 2 to 3 months.
- Salute - this plant can grow in you for many years, gradually turning into a bush with several boles. The variety loves warmth, reacts poorly to a lack of moisture, loves various dressings, mainly organic matter and wood ash. The peppercorns themselves are cone-shaped, their surface is even, the weight of each berry is up to 6.5 g, and the wall thickness sometimes exceeds 1.1 mm. Fully ripe peppercorns are rich orange.
- Hungarian Yellow - ripens early. The bush, despite the maximum height of 55 cm, is very compact, it gives us fruits that are cone-shaped, with a flat surface and a delicate peppery aroma. The peppers are massive, even 60 g is not the limit for them, the walls of each such berry reach a thickness of 5 mm. Interestingly, this variety is not afraid of drafts and temperature fluctuations. Fruits are yellow at the beginning of ripening, and scarlet at harvest.
- Habanero Red - its fruits are simply devilishly sharp, but the yield is also very solid. If you look closely, the shape of the peppercorns is more like physalis fruits. Their size is about 5 cm, the surface is ribbed, the aroma is pleasant. Each fruit weighs up to 16 g. The variety loves the abundance of moisture in the soil.
- Rainbow - forms small balls-shaped fruits with a slightly elongated tip. In the process of ripening, the fruits can change their color several times, and therefore on the bush at one moment there are fruits of various shades.
- Ryabinushka is a very decorative variety for growing at home. You can start already with boat-shaped leaf plates with edges twisted inward. The peppers are oval, small, like rowan fruit. Interestingly, the peppers fit easily inside the leaf blades.
- Nosegei is a miniature in the world of peppers, only 14-16 cm high, no more. The shape of the peppers is oval, during the ripening period they first turn green, then become whitish, later yellowish and, finally, rich scarlet. Plants can be grown in a container with a capacity of only 1 liter. Moderate acuity.
Decorative Pepper Variegated Fish
Decorative pepper Red Rocket
Variegated Fish (Hot Fish, Fish Pepper) - loves nutritious soil and plenty of moisture. The height of the bush can reach 35 cm, the foliage is creamy-variegated and very dense. The berries are elongated and have an interesting rounded tip. It is surprising that at first the peppercorns have green and light green stripes, and when fully ripe, they acquire a rich scarlet color.
Confetti - plants of this variety can reach a height of 45 cm. Peppers on bushes ripen late. This variety simply adores a lot of heat and light and does not tolerate moisture deficit. It is noteworthy that on one bush there can be peppercorns of different colors, reaching a length of 7.5 cm, respectively, and the yield of the variety is not small.
Indian Summer - it can grow perfectly even in the shade, that is, a window sill is not at all necessary for it. In the process of growth and development, it forms a completely compact bush with small leaves. It is noteworthy that this variety blooms very beautifully - with whitish flowers with a bluish tint. Fruits can be of very different shapes and colors, but one thing unites them - they are all wildly sharp.
Bell - so named for the bizarre shape of the fruit that really resembles a bell. When fully ripe, these bells turn scarlet. The pungency is dim, but pronounced, the variety is often used in cooking.
How to grow peppers at home
So, we have decided on the varieties, and I think everyone will choose a suitable one in color and taste. Now let's talk about how to grow pepper at home.
To begin with - about the choice of a place and about the optimal composition of the soil, this is important.
Growing conditions. The place where your pepper will grow should be well lit, it should be able to ventilate, but without the constant presence of a draft. It is better to place a container with a plant not on the southern windowsill, but on the west or east. Southern window sills are acceptable only if you shade the pepper from the sun at noon.
Illumination. But, of course, pepper needs sun, and at least 12 hours a day. If it is not enough, then you will have to install additional lighting lamps. With a lack of light, the pepper will stop forming new shoots, it will practically not bloom, as a result, there will be very few fruits.
The period from November to January is considered critical for indoor ornamental peppers. At this time, there is always not enough light, and this is a great stress for the plant, so the 12 hours that we mentioned above will have to be achieved artificially.
Soil and dressing. The substrate for pepper simply must be loose, water and breathable - no dense substrate. It is best to mix leaf humus, ordinary garden soil and river sand in equal proportions. For maximum loosening of the soil, it is allowed to add a fifth of sawdust, well, and so that the pepper has something to eat, then add nitroammophoska at the tip of a teaspoon.
If there is no river sand, vermiculite or perlite will perfectly replace it - they will retain moisture and will not allow the soil to compact.
Temperature. The most optimal temperature for growing annual pepper at home - about 23 of C, that is quite comfortable for us. But this is in summer, in winter it will have to be lowered to +17 o C, and this is already cool for a person. Pepper, unlike many cultures, simply loves to feel the changes in day and night temperatures, therefore, if you see that some hostess puts peppers on the balcony in the summer, then know that she truly cares about her pets.
Watering. Everything is moderate here. The main thing is not to overfill or overdry the soil, both extremes can be fatal. Air humidity is about 75%, with a decrease already to 55%, peppers should be sprayed from a conventional spray bottle with water at room temperature.
For the cultivation of ornamental peppers in the open field - in the article Ornamental peppers in the open field.
Decorative pepper (Capsicum annum)
We learned something, let's start sowing
Peppers are usually sown in the very first days of February. It is best to grow seedlings first. Be sure to disinfect the seeds in a light red solution of potassium permanganate, then rinse in running water and place in a wet cloth overnight.
If you are convinced that the seeds have been lying for several years, wrap them in a cloth moistened with any stimulant of growth activity such as Epin, Zircon and the like.
After the specified time, the seeds, as a rule, swell, and they can be safely sown in seedling containers. Usually sown in pots with a capacity of 350 ml, 5 seeds each. The mixture of soil at the seedling stage is not particularly important, you can buy a mixture for peppers at the store.
When sowing, try to keep a distance, and leave a distance of 2.5 cm between the seeds. Then press the seeds slightly into the soil and sprinkle them on top with a layer of 0.6 cm. You must be sure that all seeds are covered with soil. Only after that, carefully so as not to wash out a thin layer of substrate, you need to moisten them with a spray bottle with water at room temperature. It is necessary to achieve precisely the moistening of the soil, but not turning it into a swamp, otherwise the seeds can simply rot.
Next, the container with seeds must be covered with glass or foil and placed on the eastern windowsill, maintaining the temperature in the room at about +25 o C.
As soon as the shoots appear, the film or glass needs to be removed, usually this happens after a couple of weeks. At the same time, lower the temperature of the content by 2-3 degrees.
Decorative pepper (Capsicum annum)
Plant care is standard - watering and loosening the soil, and as soon as they form several pairs of true leaf blades, they can be safely transplanted into separate containers.
For the first time, it is better to plant the pepper in a small container - with a capacity of 400 ml, be sure to place the plant at the same level, without deepening or bullying. Do not forget to put a layer of expanded clay 1 cm thick in the base of the vessel even before planting. Then add the soil mixture mentioned above and plant a pepper. After planting, the soil must be compacted, after which the plant is abundantly watered from a spray bottle. For a week, the pepper is left alone, not even watered, the root system is allowed to form.
Ornamental pepper in a composition with false peppers
This, of course, watering with water at room temperature, especially abundant in spring and summer - during this period, the soil should not be allowed to dry out. On days when it is very hot, you can spray, and not once, but repeating it two or even three times.
Top dressing. As for dressings, it is best to use a nitroammophoska, literally 5 g of nitroammophoska, well dissolved in 0.5 liters of water, is enough for a 0.5 liter pot. This amount must be poured out in the spring, evenly spreading over the surface of the substrate.
Trimming and pinching. If the pepper began to thicken strongly, you can thin it out by removing competing shoots, too thin branches and those that grow deeper into the crown.
During the flowering period, you need to pinch the top of the head, and as soon as the first fruits appear, pinch each pace.
Transfer. About once a year, the pepper will have to be transplanted into a new container, replacing half of the soil with a fresh nutrient substrate. Many lovers of ornamental pepper deftly extract it without injuring the root system and plant it in a pot about 30% larger than it was before.
Propagation by cuttings. Not everyone knows that decorative peppers can be propagated vegetatively. To do this, take apical green cuttings with 3-4 leaves, at least 5 cm long. Rooted in water, covered with a transparent plastic bag so that the leaves do not wither and maintain turgor. With the appearance of roots, which occurs after about 2-3 weeks, they are allowed to grow no more than 1 cm and are planted in small pots. When the plants are sufficiently rooted, they are transferred into a permanent container one or three at a time.
In general, the cultivation of decorative annual peppers at home is not difficult, the main thing is to provide it with high-quality soil, light and moisture. Then you will have a beautiful, healthy plant and a spicy addition to meat dishes, which you need to be very careful with due to its great spiciness.
Decorative pepper (Capsicum annum)
Photo: Rita Brilliantova
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