Bacterial Fungicides

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Bacterial Fungicides
Bacterial Fungicides

Video: Bacterial Fungicides

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Controlling Bacterial Diseases #1088 (Air Date 2-10-19) 2023, February
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The beginning - in the article Biologicals for garden protection

Most modern biological products are multifaceted, they not only stimulate the protective properties of plants, but also additionally contain beneficial microorganisms for the soil, which contributes to better development of the root system and vegetative growth of plants.

Bacillus subtilis is one of the most studied bacteria. It produces antibacterial substances, polysaccharides, amino acids and enzymes. Bacteria suppress the reproduction of phytopathogens and fungi, produce antibiotics, stimulate plant immunity to diseases, which reduces re-infection. Based on Bacillus subtilis, the following drugs have been created and approved for use in private household plots:

Alirin (Bacillus subtilis strain B-10 VIZR),

  • Baktofit ( Bacillus subtilis strain IPM 215),
  • BisolbiSan (previously called Extrasol, Bacillus subtilis, strain Ch-1),
  • Gamair (Bacillus subtilis strain M-22 VIZR),
  • Fitosporin (Bacillus subtilis strain 26),
  • Sporobacterin (Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma viride, strain 4097).

To achieve the maximum effect of plant protection, work with biological products should begin with the treatment of planting material and seeds, and then apply them throughout the growing season. Some drugs complement each other and work great together. Combined complex treatments of plants and soil with Alirin, Gamair, Glyokladin and Trichocin have proven themselves well.

The antifungal drug Alirin is recommended to be used in conjunction with the bactericidal drug Gamair.

The seeds are soaked in a solution of Alirin with Gamair (1 tablet of Alirin + 1 tablet of Gamair) / 200 ml of water / 2 hours.

The planting material is kept in a solution of Alirin with Gamair (1 table + 1 table) / 1 l / 1 hour.

Beneficial bacteria on the surface of roots or seeds produce antibiotics that provide a natural defense against soil infection.

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Sprinkle the soil with a solution of Trichocin (6 g / 10 l) before sowing or planting in the spring to decontaminate root and root rot pathogens.

Before picking, planting seedlings, add Glyocladin to the hole (1 table / 0.3-0.8 l of soil). It will reliably protect young roots from soil infection. Add hydrogel as well. Two tablets of Glyocladin contribute to the longer fruiting of cucumbers in the greenhouse.

During the growing season, continue to work with the preparations, apply root and foliar feeding according to the scheme:

  1. 1 week after planting, spill the soil with a mixture of Alirin and Gamair (1-2 tables + 1-2 tables) / 10 l / 10 sq.m.

    After 30 days, spill the soil with Trichocin solution (6 g / 10 L).

    Every 30 days, alternate soil treatment with Alirin solutions with Gamair and Trichocin.

1 week after germination or planting, carry out processing on the sheet with Alirin with Gamair (1 tab. + 1 tab.) / 1 liter. Carry out another 2-3 foliar treatments, gradually increasing the dose to 2-3 tablets as the plants grow, with an interval of 7-14 days

Autumn tillage. In the fall, spill the soil in the beds and especially in the greenhouse with Trichocin solution to reduce the accumulated infection in the soil. If you used Glyocladin for the first time, apply it again under the plants before the onset of cold weather.

Preparations with the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (Alirin, Gamair) must be diluted in time or space with the mushroom preparations Trichoderma (Glyocladin, Trichocin), especially when watering. Leaves can be processed almost simultaneously.

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ALIRIN AND GAMAIR. Alirin effectively suppresses fungal diseases of horticultural crops and indoor plants by applying to the soil or spraying on the leaves. Protects against root rot, septoria, rhizoctonia, late blight, alternaria, cercosporosis, tracheomycotic wilting, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, scab, moniliosis, gray rot, rust.

Gamair is a broad spectrum microbiological fungicide against fungal and bacterial diseases. It is used for diseases of flower crops, both open and protected ground (spots, root rot, tracheomycotic wilting).

The drug is effective in protecting vegetables:

tomatoes from late blight, bacterial cancer, white and gray rot,

  • cucumbers from root and gray rot,
  • white cabbage from mucous and vascular bacteriosis.

After processing the beets with Gamair before storing them, the product losses decreased 16 times. Its stimulating effect on the development of protected crops was noted: an increase in the height of the stem, the number of ovaries and leaves, and acceleration of ripening.

The "headache" of rose growers is black spot, due to which the plant loses foliage, and sometimes young shoots. Gamair is the only drug that can fully protect roses from this scourge with 100% effectiveness.

These drugs are safe for humans and the environment; they do not accumulate in plants. Biological effectiveness against pathogens reaches 70-90%. Yield increase - up to 30%. Alirin, Gamair are produced in the form of tablets, readily soluble in water. The guaranteed shelf life is 3 years. If the tablets are not used up before the expiration date, you need to increase their number when used by 50%. Application period - up to 5 years. Preparations based on Bacillus subtilis belong to the 4th hazard class for humans and the 3rd hazard class for bees.

In terms of their effectiveness, Alirin, Gamair are superior to all other known biofungicides and are not inferior to chemical fungicides

If the plant gets sick, it is advisable to start treatment with a concentration (3 tab. + 3 tab.) / 1 liter, gradually increasing the concentration to (5 tab. + 5 tab.) / 1 liter. Typically, treatments are carried out at weekly intervals. Two or three treatments are enough. I managed to cope with Botrytis, which raged on peonies from neighbors, with two treatments of 5 tablets each. But it is still better to do prevention so that there are no diseases.

The preparations work well at 15-25 o C and a sufficient amount of organic food.

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Baktofit is highly effective on roses in protected ground. Its effectiveness against powdery mildew with three treatments with an interval of 7-8 days reaches 70%, the development of the disease is inhibited for up to 20 days. A mild and prolonged action of the agent on the phytopathogen was noted, it gradually disappears from the plants, therefore, at least three treatments should be carried out.

The drug is suitable for pre-sowing treatment of planting material, spraying and watering during the growing season of plants. Has a toxic effect on some pests, especially on gall midges and some aphids.

BisolbiSan is a contact action seed dressing agent. It enhances plant resistance to a wide range of diseases and prevents their mass manifestation. Reduces chemical stress to plants caused by pesticides. Enhances the action of disinfectants with systemic activity. Increases seed germination. Strengthens the intensity of plant growth, increases resistance to adverse environmental conditions.

Sporobacterin is a drug that has a preventive and curative effect against a wide range of plant pathogens: late blight, peronosporosis, rhizoctonia, root rot, bacterial spots, macrosporiosis, black leg, vascular and mucous bacteriosis, moniliosis, gray rot, scab, oidium, mildew and so on … Suitable for watering and spraying.

Fitosporin protects plants from fungal and bacterial diseases. Reduces the likelihood of re-infection. It has anti-stress functions, accelerates the growth and development of plants, and increases their productivity. Suitable for pre-sowing treatment and application when storing crops. Used for root and foliar applications. Compatible with chemical pesticides in tank mixes.

Binoram (Pseudomonas fluorescens strains 7G; 7G2K; 17-2) is the only drug with pseudomonas recommended for private household plots. These rhizospheric bacteria (living near the roots) are antagonists of a number of pathogens. They induce a natural growth regulator in the rhizosphere - indolyl-3-acetic acid, increase seed germination, reduce the number and development of pathogenic fungi that cause various root rot. The bacterium Pseudomonas has a short shelf life (1 year). The cost of Binoram is quite high, so the drug is recommended for growing crops for baby and dietary food.

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Antibiotic-based biofungicides

On the basis of streptomycin antibiotics, phytobacteriomycin is produced - Fitolavin (Streptomyces lavendulae strain 696). It has a wide spectrum of bactericidal and fungicidal action. Due to the systemic effect, it penetrates the plant, its protective and healing effect is manifested up to three weeks. This property makes it possible to reduce the number of treatments compared to conventional fungicides. It has a stimulating effect on the growth and development of plants.

The drug is highly effective against pathogens of root rot, black leg, mucous and vascular bacteriosis. There is information about the suppression of late blight of nightshade, Alternaria and some fungal pathogens from the genus Fusarium. Suitable for watering and spraying. Hazard class: - 3 (moderately hazardous compound).

One of the few drugs that can help with epiphytoties of bacterial diseases of vegetable crops in protected ground. 3-4 days after application, when the bactericidal effect decreases, it is recommended to apply biological products of bacterial nature (Planriz or Baktofit) to populate the soil with useful microflora by watering at the root.

Fitolavin is compatible with most of the known chemical insecticides, fungicides, herbicides. Not compatible with bacterial preparations. Phytotoxicity is absent in the recommended consumption rates. The emergence of resistance has not yet been established.

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Mushroom-based biofungicides

Mushroom fungicides are biological products based on Trichoderma fungi. Their main role is to suppress soil infections, although they are able to prevent the development of diseases of fruits and leaves. For private household plots, three drugs are approved for use:

Glyocladin (Trichoderma harzianum, strain 18 VIZR),

  • Trichocin (Trichoderma harzianum strain G 30),
  • Trichoderma Veride (Trichoderma viride strain 4097).

They differ in strains, preparative forms (tablets and powders), the concentration of the active substance (Trichocin is a more concentrated drug than the rest). In soil, fungi of the genus Trichoderma develop on the mycelium of phytopathogens, on various plant residues rich in cellulose. The fungus in the soil forms a well-developed mycelium, propagates by spores. Mushrooms begin to work at temperatures above 10 o C, but develop best in soils rich in organic matter at a moisture content of 60-80% and a temperature of 14-27 o C. Without a sufficient amount of organic matter, it will not work. For the normal functioning of Trichoderma Veride, cellulose (paper, cleaning, tea bags) is necessary, and for Trichoderma hartsianum (Glyocladin, Trichodermin) - a lot of organic matter.

After harvesting, use Trichoderma Veride to recycle plant residues and improve the soil. In the spring, a very good effect is observed when Glyocladin tablets or Trichocin is added to soil mixtures for greenhouses and beds. With the correct use of drugs (temperature, humidity, nutrition), colonization of plant roots by microorganisms occurs. Trichoderma, as it were, forms a temporary mycorrhiza with roots. Mycorrhiza (symbiosis of root and fungi) can significantly improve the “quality of plant life”. The fungus root helps to increase the size of the root system, improve nutrition, growth and plant vitality.

GLIOKLADIN (DV Trichoderma harziannum VIZR-18 and a complex of metabolites) is a microbiological fungicide that effectively suppresses up to 60 fungal diseases in the soil: root rot, wilting of various etiologies, verticillosis, late blight. Its protective effect is manifested by the release of antibiotics and specific enzymes that destroy the structures of pathogens. The biological product has a powerful stimulating effect on plant development. The increase in the yield of agricultural crops is 15-25%, and on sunflower - up to 60%. The drug reduces soil toxicity after steaming or applying plant protection chemicals by restoring soil microflora.

The drug is produced in the form of tablets, insoluble in water, introduced into the root zone to a depth of 5-7 cm (no more than 10 cm). Before applying Glyocladin - check the soil temperature and do not forget to water the plants.

Trichoderma loves to eat very much, there should be enough organic nutrition in the soil. But the plant itself should not be overfed. In this case, it switches to a light diet and ceases to secrete substances necessary for the microbiota from the roots.

Compatibility: keep the interval when watering with biological products Alirin, Gamair, Binoram for at least 7-14 days, simultaneous application with chemicals is prohibited. Shelf life 2 years. Consumption rate: 1 tablet is applied under one plant or in 300 ml of soil.

Glyocladin tablets are most effective mainly for planting, transplanting small plants, for example, when propagating strawberries, or planting seedlings. If you have large bushes, it is better to treat with other drugs in liquid form so that the soil can be shed well (Fitosporin, Trichocin)

Interesting figures from specialists of the service of urban gardening of St. Petersburg when using Glyokladin:

Lawns (soil formation - inverted turf) - 100% protection against soil-dwelling phytopathogens.

  • Root and root rot - up to 100%.

TRIKHOCIN (DV Trichoderma harzianum strain G 30) effectively suppresses causative agents of fungal diseases (root rot, spotting) of various crops, improves the quality of fruits, increases yields, relieves the effects of stress from the use of chemicals and fertilizer overdose. In private household plots it is recommended for caring for seedlings of flower crops, prevention of diseases of tomatoes and cucumbers. Release in the form of a powder, soluble in water. Shelf life is 2 years.

Trichoderma VERIDE 471 (Trichoderma veride, strain 471) - an effective biological product protects against root and fruit rot, black leg, Fusarium, Phytophthora infestans, etc. Getting in moist soil, Trichoderma spores germinate, releasing natural antibiotics and obezzarazhivaya soil around.. Moreover, the drug has a long-term effect: it destroys the dormant and hibernating stages of pathogens. Getting on the damaged area of ​​the diseased plant, the spores germinate, feeding on the diseased tissue, and at the same time heal the plant.

Fungicide for seed treatment and preventive treatment of plants against diseases, biological disinfection of soil in protected ground, germination stimulator. The period of protective action: from pre-sowing seed treatment to the end of the growing season of plant development. Speed ​​of action: suppresses phytopathogenic fungi in the initial period of their development, without disturbing plant growth, is not phytotoxic. The drug is not pathogenic and non-toxic to beneficial entomofauna.

The ability to secrete antibiotics is higher in Trichoderma hartsianum (Glyocladin, Trichocin) than in Trichoderma Veride (green trichoderma). For the prevention and treatment of diseases, the sources of which are in the soil (root rot, verticillosis), use Glyocladin and Trichocin. And for the improvement of the soil in the fall and the processing of plant residues, add Trichoderma Veride.

In case of phytopathogenic bacterial diseases, it makes no sense to use preparations with trichoderma, only bacterial fungicides are needed here (Gamair, Fitolavin).

Continued in the article Bacterial insecticides.

Photo: Rita Brilliantova

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