Table of contents:
- Anti-flowering preparations
- Skimmer - a device for cleaning the surface of water
- Multi-chamber filter system
- DELTA multi-chamber filter action
- The principle of the vortex chamber
- BIOTEK multi-chamber filter system
- Pond filtration tanks
- Pond pressure filters
Transparent and clean water is the main condition for the normal existence of living organisms and plants in the pond. Sunlight, rain, various external pollutants (eg leaves, dust), partial water changes and much more all cause changes in water conditions. There are two main reasons leading to water pollution. One of them is the presence of too many nutrients in the water, which are the product of the vital activity of fish, as well as the result of the decomposition of dead plants. Another is the excessive accumulation of organic silt and harmful fungi and bacteria living in it at the bottom. At the same time, the oxygen content in the water is significantly reduced. The biggest problem for a pond is, as a rule, the excess of nutrients, which is caused by insufficient landscaping,overpopulation of the pond with fish (as a result - a large release of ammonia), as well as rainwater. Unused nutrients lead to intensive growth of algae (and algae not in the usual sense, but microscopic blue-green or filamentous algae). Bacteria decompose algae, while consuming a lot of oxygen, which causes a lack of oxygen for plants and fish and throws the pond out of biological balance. Violation of the biological balance leads to damage to plants and fish with various diseases.which causes a lack of it for plants and fish and brings the pond out of biological balance. Violation of the biological balance leads to damage to plants and fish with various diseases.which causes a lack of it for plants and fish and brings the pond out of biological balance. Violation of the biological balance leads to damage to plants and fish with various diseases.
To prevent this from happening, special biological agents and filtration systems are used to help preserve the natural balance of nature. The main criterion when choosing a filter for a pond is the size of the reservoir and the ratio of the volume to the population of fish and plants.
The placement of the filtration system is best solved at the stage of construction of the reservoir, since some of them are rather large, and after the completion of construction, it is very difficult to "fit" the system into the overall landscape of the site.
A properly selected reservoir filtration system allows you to transform a simple garden pond into a natural ecosystem with its own biological balance.
Cleaning with the use of zeolite minerals is also effective - they are placed in the filter chambers or directly into the pond in special nets. These natural minerals have a "porous crystal" structure, due to which they have the ability to extract harmful substances from water. To maintain biological balance during the season, only 1-3 kg of zeolite is sufficient per 1000 liters.
A mechanical filter (installed in front of the pump) serves to purify water from large particles, protect the pump from abrasives. It is usually used with fountain pumps or as a pre-filter in filtration systems. The principle of operation of mechanical filters is based on the passage of water through a container filled with a porous material (sponge or special granules). Organic particles and algae are trapped and deposited in the filter.
Skimmer - a device for cleaning the surface of water
Fallen leaves at the bottom of the reservoir turn into a layer of silt, emitting putrefactive gases. In such a pond, the ecosystem of which is out of balance, the upper layer (about half a meter) is usually well heated, and the bottom layers are darkened and very cold.
A skimmer (surface filter) will help to avoid the ingress of debris and leaves into the water in the summer, and in the fall - a special mesh that is stretched over the surface of the reservoir. With the help of a skimmer, dirt particles are sucked directly from the surface of the water, before they have settled to the bottom and polluted the pond. The upper part of the skimmer floats on the surface, with the help of an attached pump, a thin layer of water is sucked in and creates a current on the surface of the pond towards the skimmer. Large particles of dirt (leaves and grass) are caught by the skimmer basket, while smaller particles enter the filter. The skimmer is an important part of the filtration system, as it mixes warm water from the surface of the pond with the deep layers, and the water temperature evens out, which inhibits the formation of algae.
The principle of operation of the skimmer is shown in the diagram.
There are three types of skimmers, one of which has a fixed stand into which pebbles are poured for stability, the second floats freely on the surface, the third is mounted on the edge of the pond. The skimmer on the stand has an automatic level control when the water level fluctuates up to 16 cm. The depth of the pond for the installation of a skimmer with a fixed stand should be at least 60-80 cm. The free floating skimmer is practically independent of changes in the water level. The side skimmer is installed in the ground next to the pond and is powered by a separate pump, the rest can be connected to a pump that supplies water to the filtration system.
In small bodies of water, the surface can be cleaned with a net. The novelty of the 2006 season is a net with a protective metal edging along the rim, which protects the net from damage.
Some of the debris inevitably settles at the bottom, creating a layer of silt that releases ammonia. To remove silt from the bottom of the pond, a pond sludge pump is used. At its core, this is an ordinary vacuum cleaner that sucks in not air, but dirty water with various suspensions - bottom silt, algae, dead plant residues. The suction pump can only be used in reservoirs with artificial turf (concrete, rigid mold, foil).
UV filter(installed outside the water) allows you to purify water from organic compounds. Ultraviolet radiation, successfully used for many years in wastewater treatment, is now available for use in garden ponds up to 230,000 liters. The UV filter not only makes the water clear, but also prevents many diseases of fish and pond plants. The effect of using the filter is noticeable after 5-10 days (depending on the condition of the water at the time of installation). Under the influence of ultraviolet rays, algae and unicellular organisms die and stick together into large lumps that can be filtered by a mechanical filter, therefore it is better to install UV at the entrance to the biomechanical filter. The UV filter is easy to install (becausethe kit includes standard connections for all types of hoses) and does not require complex maintenance. Lamp life 8000-10000 hours. Such filters are produced by various companies that produce equipment for garden ponds. Models differ among themselves in size, power, design, installation and operation. The most advanced (but also the most expensive) are UV filters from German companies. Their distinctive feature is the presence of a built-in tube cleaning system (automatic or with the help of a powerful electromagnet), which prevents contamination of the UV lamp.The most advanced (but also the most expensive) are UV filters from German companies. Their distinctive feature is the presence of a built-in tube cleaning system (automatic or with the help of a powerful electromagnet), which prevents contamination of the UV lamp.The most advanced (but also the most expensive) are UV filters from German companies. Their distinctive feature is the presence of a built-in tube cleaning system (automatic or with the help of a powerful electromagnet), which prevents contamination of the UV lamp.
New for the season are the I-Tronik algae control devices. This device consists of an anode (mineralized copper alloy) and a cathode (stainless steel). The microprocessor of the device emits electrical impulses, due to which the formed copper ions effectively destroy algae (especially filamentous ones). For people, animals (except for snails) and plants, such a concentration of copper ions is absolutely safe. Various modifications of the I-Tronik device are suitable for reservoirs from 5000 to 75000 liters.
Multi-chamber filter system
To obtain clear water in the pond, various multi-chamber filter systems have been developed. The range of produced filters covers reservoirs of almost any volume. These filters are suitable both for ponds where only plants are present and for reservoirs inhabited by fish.
The filter housing is made of durable polyethylene or fiberglass, resistant to UV radiation and low temperatures. A complete cleaning includes three necessary stages: mechanical, ultraviolet irradiation and biological. It is better to follow the following sequence of steps: first, ultraviolet radiation treatment, then mechanical cleaning and finally biological filtration. In this case, the mechanical filter will pick up a larger amount of debris - both existing in the pond and formed after the water passes through ultraviolet emitters (for example, algae lumps).
It should be understood that installing only one of the filters will not solve the problem of keeping the pond clean. So, ultraviolet installations kill algae, but do not remove them from the water in any way - this is the task of mechanical cleaning. A biological filter, on the other hand, is difficult to cope with a heavy load - it will often clog.
DELTA multi-chamber filter action
DELTA multi-chamber filters are designed according to the "up and down" principle. The water is fed to the mud chamber located below, where a significant part of the pollution is collected from the very beginning. After that, the water rises through the filter medium and enters through the diaphragm into the next mud chamber. Dirt remaining in the lower part of the chambers should be regularly removed through the drain pipes. Dirty water can be directed to a sewer or used in the garden as plant fertilizer and irrigation. The purified water flows back into the pond by gravity through the drain pipe in the upper part of the body.
The principle of the vortex chamber
Systems that have a circular filter chamber first have a big advantage. As a result of the slow motion of the rotating flow, most of the contamination settles in the mud chamber below. Only then does the water flow through the filter mats. For the correct functioning of the filter system, an optimal selection of pump performance is required. Too high pump capacity not only leads to filter overflow, but also to less efficient filtration.
These systems have larger dimensions than counterparts from other manufacturers, which allows installing a pump of lower capacity, which means they are more economical, because the filters must work around the clock throughout almost the entire season.
BIOTEK multi-chamber filter system
combines biological treatment and ultraviolet water disinfection. Moreover, the number of filter chambers is selected depending on the volume of the pond and the presence of fish or plants in it.
The advantage of these systems is a more compact size and a more convenient scheme for connecting the biomechanical part of the system with an ultraviolet filter, ease of maintenance. In some popular BIOTEK filter models, the drain hole is located at the bottom of the housing, which creates additional difficulties when masking the unit. In new models of filters, this drawback has been practically eliminated.
Pond filtration tanks
Another method of biological filtration of the pond is the use of special containers that allow to purify the water in the most natural way. Filtration is carried out by passing water through a layer of gravel, which cleans the water from algae and other contaminants. To increase the cleaning effect, part of the gravel can be replaced with zeolite or lavagranulate (at the rate of 3 kg per 1 cubic meter). Swamp plants (for example, cattail), planted in baskets in the upper gravel layer, complete the biological treatment process. Such a container is installed at the edge of the pond so that purified water through a special drain falls back into the pond, or is used as one of the elements in the stream bed. In both versions, the pump with a capacity of 3000-4000 l / h is sufficient for water circulation in the system. The device of such a filter is shown in the figures.
Pond pressure filters
In our opinion, such systems are the simplest and most economical solution for reservoirs with a volume of up to 20,000 liters. The three-stage filtration system allows you to professionally care for the purity of the water. The filter uses a filtration system that combines biological, mechanical and UV treatment, the combination of which ensures water purity and reduces the number of pathogens.
Buying such a filter, you get in one case:
a three-stage water purification system using a pressure filter;
- UV lamp built into the filter system;
- easy maintenance with control on the top cover;
- the ability to locate the source of your stream or waterfall much higher than the place where the filter is installed (the magnitude of the drop depends on the filter model);
- the possibility of integrating a heater (for "Druk filter");
- the ability to bury the filter ¾ in the ground and easily disguise it (inlet and outlet pipes are located directly on the cover).
- The information provided for the selection of filters is approximate. The choice of a filter unit is influenced by many factors, such as the number and types of fish inhabiting the reservoir, the presence of additional aeration of the pond, etc.
- In our calculations for ponds inhabited by fish, we proceed from the maximum value - 1 cm of fish length per 30-50 liters of pond water. When sizing your filter, keep in mind that the number and size of fish in a pond with good water quality can increase rapidly. For a reservoir inhabited by fish, the volume of the pond is multiplied by two and the filter is selected based on the result.
- Oxygen is, as described above, a very important component in the cycle of nutrients in the pond, therefore we recommend using aeration pumps in these filter systems, or be sure to arrange cascades and waterfalls.
- For the correct functioning of any filter system, an optimal selection of pump performance is required. Too high pump capacity not only leads to filter overflow, but also to less efficient filtration. The pump must meet the specifications of the filter and allow solids to pass through (dirty water pumps). The pump must be installed so that no areas of standing water remain in the pond.
- Turn on filtration equipment when the water temperature in the pond rises to + 12 ° C. The shutdown is recommended in September-October, depending on weather conditions. During this entire period, the filters must constantly work, turning off only during the cleaning.
- The length and diameter of the supply hoses, the number of connections and the UV-C emitter affect the water flow in the filter system. To avoid overflow or dry running, the water flow must be adjusted. Speed controllers or conventional valves are ideal for this purpose. Too small hose size will result in unacceptable loss of pump performance.
Considering the above, you can select a filtration system on your own, but it is better to entrust it to specialists who can select it taking into account all the features of your reservoir.
To camouflage filtration systems and camouflage electrical equipment, you can pick up artificial stones of various colors, sizes and shapes.