Natural Style Pond

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Natural Style Pond
Natural Style Pond
Video: Natural Style Pond
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Recently, more and more often on their plots, flower growers, along with "alpine hills", arrange decorative reservoirs, trying to beautifully arrange even a small pond. However, they often strive to plant as many plants as possible in the water. As a result, among the dense thickets and the abundance of foliage, the water mirror is almost invisible. Meanwhile, one must remember that in such compositions the main decorative element is precisely the open water surface. Plants should occupy no more than 30-40% of the surface of the reservoir.

An artificial reservoir can be made in a formal or landscape (natural) style. The first assumes a geometrically correct outline of the reservoir (circle, rectangle, etc.) and clearly defined boundaries. No plants are planted on its banks. In the garden, the "formal" pond is positioned in such a way as to focus attention on it. To do this, it must be separated from other elements of the garden by lawns. For greater effect, special technical devices are often used - fountains, lighting.

The pond, decorated in a landscape style, has a free outline. The smooth coastline is necessarily decorated with coastal plants. The creation of such a reservoir is less laborious. In addition, it does not need to be separated from other elements of the garden, which is difficult to do in a small area. The landscape style provides ample opportunities for the use of natural flora when decorating a reservoir. Therefore, knowledge of the basic laws of the life of aquatic plants in natural conditions will help to avoid mistakes and create a harmonious ensemble without extra time, effort and money.

In natural plant communities (phytocenoses), in the process of evolution, plant species adapted to coexistence under these conditions have been selected. The peculiarity of the natural environment determines the appearance and biological characteristics of aquatic and coastal plants. Higher plants "leading an aquatic life" take root at different depths. In this regard, a pronounced zonation of vegetation is observed near the shores of the lakes. The following main belts are distinguished here.

Free floating plants (not attached to the bottom of the reservoir) are divided into two groups. The first includes submerged species that do not appear on the surface of the water - common hornwort (Ceratophillum demersum), pemphigus (Utricularia vulgaris). These plants do not have roots, they absorb water with dissolved elements of mineral nutrition and oxygen throughout their entire surface, which is significantly increased by feathery, heavily dissected leaves. In books on landscape design, devoted to the arrangement of garden ponds, representatives of this particular group are called "oxygenators", although, strictly speaking, all green plants in the light during photosynthesis release oxygen.

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Hornwort

ordinary

Pemphigus

vulgaris

Representatives of another group swim on the surface of the water: small duckweed (Lemna minor), common water-red (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae). This also includes the common telores (Stratoides aloides) with half-submerged rosettes of rigid, serrated leaves along the edges.

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Duckweed

Vodokras ordinary

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Telorez ordinary

The second belt is made up of plants with floating leaves attached to the bottom of the reservoir. These are some types of pondweed, for example, floating pondweed (Potamogeton natans), yellow egg capsule (Nuphar lutea), white water lilies (Nymphaea candida) and white water lilies (Nymphaea alba). The latter species in the Moscow Region remains viable even in freezing water bodies. Due to the deficiency of oxygen in their habitat, these plants are characterized by variegation (heterophyllia) - underwater and emergent leaves are very different. The first are narrow, often with strongly reduced plates; the latter are on long petioles, with wide leaf blades lying on the surface of the water. A powerful system of gas exchange air cavities also helps these leaves stay afloat.

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Rdest floating

Yellow capsule

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Snow-white water lily

White water lily

The third belt is formed by coastal ("amphibious") plants, which take root at different depths and rise significantly above the water surface. Often these plants can develop outside the water, in highly humid places - damp meadows, low-lying swamps, in wetlands. Lake reeds (Scirpus lacustris), common reeds (Phragmites communis), broad-leaved cattails (Typha latifolia) enter the depth of more than 1 m. Due to intensive vegetative reproduction, they form extensive thickets - floodplains. As these plants die off, reed or reed peat accumulates, which in an enclosed reservoir can lead to gradual waterlogging.

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Bulrush

Common reed

Broadleaf cattail

The shallow waters are inhabited by large manna (Glyceria maxima), marsh iris (Iris pseudacorus), common calamus (Acorus calamus). Very decorative calamus (Acorus gramineus) is a small narrow-leaved plant that looks like a cereal. Near the coast there are also the Umbelliferae (Butomus umbellatus), the plantain daisy (Alisma plantago-aquatica), and the common arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia).

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Susak umbrella

Calamus cereal

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Mannik big

On the shores of water bodies, there are plants that do not belong to the water itself, but need high soil moisture - marsh calla (Calla palustris), marsh marigold (Caltha palustris) and others, marsh forget-me-not (Myosotis palustris), many species of rushes (Juncus spp.) and sedge (Carex spp.). These plants, typical of low-lying bogs and marshy meadows, are perfect for decorating the shores of a landscape garden pond.

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Forget-me-not swamp

Marsh marigold

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calla

marsh

When creating a reservoir, it is advisable to find a place for representatives of different belts, if, of course, the area and depth allows. In natural communities, all components of the system are in a state of dynamic equilibrium with each other and with the environment. An imbalance will inevitably lead to a shift in balance. So, in the absence of submerged plants in the reservoir, a rapid growth of algae begins - the water becomes cloudy. Quantitative imbalances are no less dangerous. If more than half of the surface of the reservoir is covered with floating leaves of water lilies, then the submerged plants will not have enough light. In a reservoir of 5 m 2and with a maximum depth of 0.6 m, it is enough to plant 1-2 water lilies, 10 submerged and 5-7 coastal plants. Do not forget that many aquatic and marsh species are characterized by intense vegetative reproduction. Therefore, it is better to plant them in lattice plastic containers. In addition, specially bred compact varieties can be used: they are more decorative and, as a rule, grow more slowly.

However, many growers densely plant the space around the water with decorative perennials - hosts, daylilies, badan, etc. As a result of such a "mixture of genres", the entire effect of a reservoir designed in a landscape style disappears. It is better to arrange a shady garden nearby - but as an independent object (for example, separating it with a path). These and many other moisture-loving plants - bathing suits, primroses, astilbe, aquilegia - can be freely placed there. A well-planned and executed pond of free outlines is the decoration of any garden. The main thing when creating it is not to forget the basic principle: "less is better."

K. Golikov

Candidate of Biological Sciences, Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov

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