Cutting, Pruning Deciduous Hedges

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Cutting, Pruning Deciduous Hedges
Cutting, Pruning Deciduous Hedges

Video: Cutting, Pruning Deciduous Hedges

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Pruning Deciduous Shrubs & Trees : Spring Pruning 2023, February

The main activity of caring for the ground part of the hedge

is a haircut (for molded hedges), - pruning (for free-growing ones).

Cutting molded hedges

Trimming is done to enhance the growth of side shoots, increase the density of the crown, to obtain the correct profile of the hedge

Deciduous hedges should be pruned in the first year after planting. If poorly formed plants with an open root system were planted, they are cut off by ½ the length, more formed container plants by a third. For autumn planting, such pruning is carried out in the spring, with spring - early spring of the next year. This pruning creates a thicker hedge base.

Next comes the molding stage, the purpose of which is to increase the density of the branches and create the contours of the hedge. The first haircut is carried out in the second year after planting, then it should be carried out annually: for a young hedge - once a year in early spring or late autumn, then up to 2-3 times (in spring, July and autumn). For fast-growing plants (plums, hawthorns), repeated haircuts are carried out during the summer from May to October - as the shoots grow, with a loss of clarity of the hedge lines. Less often (twice a season - in July-August and October), it is required to cut barberries, cotoneaster, snowberry.

The depth of the cut increases with the growth and age of the hedge: in young plants, no more than 1/3 of the annual growth is cut off. With age, when the growth of the shoots weakens, they can be shortened to half. Such pruning stimulates branching, an increase in leaf blades. As the hedge approaches the given height, the cutting can be even deeper, up to the fact that the stumps of 1-2 cm are left from the annual growth. reach the desired height. Then it remains only to regularly trim the hedge from above and from the sides.

Molded hedge
Molded hedge

Once the target height is reached, a constant topcut is required to maintain the shape of the hedge. If its shape is rectangular or trapezoidal, even a slight regrowth of shoots can spoil the profile of the hedge, so very frequent haircuts are required. In rounded or triangular hedges, the unevenness of the growing shoots is less noticeable and the trimming is not so laborious.

A common mistake is insufficient cutting depth of the hedge, when only the ends of the shoots are cut. In this case, after a few years, the fence looses, sags and loses its decorative effect. To prevent this from happening, you need to keep in shape as close as possible to last year. It is necessary to cut more deeply from the sides so that in the profile the height significantly exceeds the width, and does not gradually approach the square. As a result of improper haircuts, the lighting conditions deteriorate, the bottom of the hedge is ugly exposed, many dry branches appear, and the density decreases. For resuscitation of a neglected hedge, it is recommended to cut it to 1 / 4-1 / 2 of the height and width, or even cut it to a stump in order to cause intensive growth of new shoots.

A rejuvenating haircut is applied not only to neglected hedges, but also in case of loss of their decorative and protective properties. It is preferable to carry out rejuvenation in two stages: in the first year, only one side is sheared, cutting off branches at a distance of 10 cm from the trunk, the second is sheared as usual. The next year, the other side is rejuvenated. In urgent cases, rejuvenation is performed simultaneously from both sides.

The cut should be oblique over a well-developed healthy bud, directed to the periphery of the bush, which is especially important when forming a young hedge.

After cutting, the plants need to create conditions for a quick recovery: water abundantly, fertilize, mulch the soil with bark, wood chips, peat, compost or at least mowed grass.

The clipping tool can be electric (hedge trimmer, electric scissors, chainsaw), although it is better, especially for young hedges, to use a hand tool - pruning shears or garden shears, which will spoil the leaves less and allow a more careful hedge shaping. The haircut can be done along the stretched cords, but it is most convenient to use a wire frame painted in a bright color. The height of the haircut is increased annually by 4-6 cm until the desired level is reached.

Pruning free-growing hedges

It is a misconception that free-growing hedges do not require molding pruning and maintenance. Of course, you don't need to trim often, but annual pruning is essential to create a lush, healthy hedge. Planted plants are pruned heavily, as with molded hedges, in the early spring of the following year.

Free growing barberry hedge Rosy Glow
Free growing barberry hedge Rosy Glow

Further, depending on the tasks, the following types of pruning are carried out:

Formative is aimed at creating a crown of a certain shape and saturation density with both perennial (skeletal) and temporary overgrowing branches.

Held from mid-February to March (for conditions in central Russia).

Supporting, or regulating, is aimed at maintaining the parameters of the crown, optimal illumination of all its sections, the most favorable ratio between growth, flowering and fruiting.

Anti-aging is aimed at stimulating the formation of new shoots in aging and old plants.

Restorative is aimed at restoring the ability to grow, flowering, fruiting in plants neglected or affected by unfavorable conditions.

The last two types of pruning can be carried out from mid-February to mid-April, or in August-September, after the growth of shoots is completed.

Sanitary aims to remove dead buds, dead, diseased, damaged and crossed branches to maintain a neat and balanced plant shape. It can be carried out throughout the year, with the exception of the winter months (due to the danger of drying out and the negative impact on the sections of low temperatures) and the period of sap flow (when the abundant release of sap from the surface of the sections can lead to weakening and even death of the plant).

Timely removal of dry, old, weak branches thickening the crown is especially important for flowering and fruiting plants. Pruning is carried out taking into account their biological characteristics:

Free-growing hedge of wrinkled rose
Free-growing hedge of wrinkled rose

Blooming on the shoots of the current year, usually in summer or autumn (roses, some spireas, derens, scumpias, five-leafed plants, elderberry, fieldfare) are pruned before flowering, in early spring, or in autumn. Some plants can be cut very strongly (hydrangea, amorphous, willow spirea), they will bloom anyway, but, for example, rose hips should not be cut so much.

Blooming on the shoots of the last year, as a rule, in the spring (henomeles, hawthorn, cherry, apple, forsythia, barberries, some spireas, lilacs, viburnum, mockweed, weigels) are cut off after flowering. Faded inflorescences are cut with part of the shoot, after which the young shoots have time to grow and lay flower buds for flowering next year.

Ornamental deciduous plants (variegated, purple-leaved, yellow-leaved) are cut in order to increase the density of the crown and maintain its shape. After partial pruning of the shoots, the duration of which is not so important, an additional number of shoots develops, the leaves become larger, juicy and decorative.

Cut branches and leaves can be a source of disease and pests, so they must not be composted but must be carefully collected and burned.

20 minutes after trimming, thick sections should be treated with garden putty, var, Ranet paste, Bordeaux ointment (prepared from Bordeaux mixture - copper sulfate and quicklime 1: 1, mixed with sunflower oil to the consistency of a dry paste) or at least a thick oil paint diluted in sunflower oil (except for zinc white and cinnabar).

Based on materials from books:

Uleiskaya L.I., Komar-Temnaya L.D., "Living hedges", M., 2002

Sapelin A.Yu., "Hedges" - M., 2007

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