Philosophy Of Emptiness And Silence

Table of contents:

Philosophy Of Emptiness And Silence
Philosophy Of Emptiness And Silence
Video: Philosophy Of Emptiness And Silence
Video: Taoism - The Importance of Silence and Emptiness | Alan Watts 2023, February
Anonim

LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUTH

May-June 2008, No. 3 (4)

Image
Image
Image
Image

"My garden is my life" - perhaps this ancient Indian saying could not belong to the representatives of any other people. It is in India - a huge country with diverse natural resources - that the attitude towards a flower, a tree, and therefore a garden is distinguished by special trepidation and love. The development of Indian gardening art is woven into the history of the country and reflects its most important milestones. At the same time, even being at the crossroads of civilizations - and for a long time it was here that the West literally met the East - India managed to preserve the authenticity of its gardens and parks, avoiding the significant influence of other cultures. That is why to this day Indian landscape architecture remains a completely original phenomenon, nowhere repeated and unique.

Unlike many other countries, in India, gardens have never been just a way to organize space around palaces or other buildings, or even more so as a decorative element. For Hindus, gardening art is an essential part of spiritual life, a symbolic expression of their ontological ideas and beliefs. One of the oldest Indian cults is the cult of the tree, which was considered a sacred sign of wisdom and longevity and was sung in the folk epic and manuscripts of Hinduism. The long history of this cult is evidenced by archaeological finds: images of trees are present on seals found in Mohenjo and dating back to the third millennium BC. Later, special reverence for trees was not only not lost,but it also entered Buddhist mythology as the most important component - each period of Buddha's life is associated with a specific tree. Moreover, the birth of Buddhism in the literal sense takes place against the background of the oldest Indian park: according to legend, the Buddha was born in the Lumbini garden, which, according to one version, was a salo grove, and according to the other - an ashok grove and was intended for walks for the residents of Sakya. Legend also says that Buddha's mother, Mahamaya, held onto tree branches during childbirth. Thus, gardening art is inextricably linked with the main life-forming principle of the Hindus - with Buddhism. Therefore, being the most important form of the spiritual life of the people, landscape architecture is reflected in other forms of Indian art. So, "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana" - the famous epics of Ancient India, dating back to the 5th century BC,- describe in detail the city gardens and parks and the plants that live in them: mango, sugar palm, pandanus, bignonia, oleander, jasmine, bindweed and lotus.

Image
Image

Is the Indian garden the same in terms of organization, composition and concept? Due to the fact that its history goes back at least three millennia, it is impossible to answer this question in one paragraph. Perhaps there is no answer to it at all, since "Indian garden" is not a term denoting a certain direction, but only the combined name of all the gardens of the country of snake charmers, regardless of their style. If, nevertheless, try to classify Indian gardens, then in the history of their construction, three main periods can be distinguished.

The first period covers the time from the 2nd to the 4th century AD and is considered the "Golden Age" of Indian gardening. It was during this period that gardening art penetrates into all spheres of life: treatises are composed in honor of trees, flowers become an indispensable attribute of women's toilet, plants begin to play a primary role in the subjects of miniatures. In this era, four types of gardens were laid out in palaces: for kings, for the royal family, for priests and courtiers. All of them had a special spiritual meaning and were dedicated to the god Indra. At the same time, they also had a completely practical significance, since during this period the garden became the main stage on which the life of Indian aristocrats unfolds: it was in the garden, not in the house, that business negotiations and secular amusements took place. Even the joys of love had as their background not the palace chambers,but hidden from prying eyes corners of the garden, as evidenced by numerous Indian miniatures depicting scenes of love in the lap of nature. Such a functional significance of the park of this period required appropriate equipment. Its obligatory elements were a pond, a pavilion drowning in jasmine bushes, and a swing. Bird cages hung from mango and banyan branches, and swans, geese and ducks swam in the ponds.

In parallel to the palace park art, at this time such a unique form of Indian landscape construction as the Buddhist temple garden was developing. For Buddhism, planting and caring for a garden is almost a religious act that allows you to achieve unity with nature and a state of absolute contemplative peace. This is why Buddhist monks spent most of their time setting up monastery gardens. As a rule, these were extensive flowering groves of Ashoka and Kadamba. Currently, the temple park is forgotten in its homeland, but its examples can be seen in Thailand: Bangkok pagodas are located among picturesque gardens, which are decorated with ashok trees.

Image
Image

The next milestone in the history of Indian landscape design is the gardens of the Mughal Empire, which flourished in the 16th-18th centuries. At this time, the motives of the Muslim East are organically included in the melody of traditional Indian gardens. This was mainly expressed in the use of the Chor-Bak principle, which in translation means “four squares” and, in accordance with the name, is a multiple division of the garden into squares. The entire space of the garden was divided into four squares, which, in turn, included four more squares. Not paths were used as dividing lines, but small channels with water. In the center of the squares, fountains or pools with miniature fountains were arranged. Water, which has always been treated with great care in the East, begins to play a major role in the Indian garden during this period.Everything else - marble sides of pools and canals, multi-level terraces, flowers and trees, gazebos - becomes an addition, the purpose of which is to set off the beauty of the water surface. In the Mughal style, the Shalimar Garden in Lagor (now the territory of Pakistan), the Pinjore Garden (and now one of the most beautiful places in North India), and the Nishat Garden were built. The greatest example of a Mughal garden is the Taj Mahal mausoleum park, which was planned as a kind of waterway leading to the mosque, and without which it is impossible to imagine the main symbol of India.The greatest example of a Mughal garden is the Taj Mahal mausoleum park, which was planned as a kind of waterway leading to the mosque, and without which it is impossible to imagine the main symbol of India.The greatest example of a Mughal garden is the Taj Mahal mausoleum park, which was planned as a kind of waterway leading to the mosque, and without which it is impossible to imagine the main symbol of India.

The third period in the development of Indian gardening art was the result of large-scale historical changes in the life of the country. The unification of Rajasthan (Central India) and the Mughal Empire led to the fusion of the two cultures, the result of which, among other things, the formation of a new type of garden, called the Rajput. This time can without exaggeration be called the era of the greatest influence of the traditions of Western landscape construction on Indian. Probably, it was it that provoked the appearance in the landscape of the Indian garden of such an uncharacteristic feature for him as an emphasized decorativeness. It manifested itself in the use of mosaics, artificial lighting, the introduction of small architectural forms and sculptures into the garden ensemble, which had previously been limited to fountains. In addition, the garden, which used to be an open, unified space,inscribed in the surrounding landscape, they began to fence with openwork marble and wooden lattices. The luxury of the park was emphasized by peacocks walking along the alleys and paths. Another fundamental change that took place in the gardening art of India at this time was the expansion of the range of plants that decorate the garden at the expense of foreign ones. If before that only traditional banyans, cannes, rhododendrons, lotuses, ashokas and other local trees and flowers grew in Indian gardens, then from now on exotic pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu are planted in them., which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.began to be fenced with openwork marble and wooden lattices. The luxury of the park was emphasized by peacocks walking along the alleys and paths. Another fundamental change that took place in the gardening art of India at this time was the expansion of the range of plants that decorate the garden at the expense of foreign ones. If before that only traditional banyans, cannes, rhododendrons, lotuses, ashokas and other local trees and flowers grew in Indian gardens, then from now on exotic pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu are planted in them., which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.began to be fenced with openwork marble and wooden lattices. The luxury of the park was emphasized by peacocks walking along the alleys and paths. Another fundamental change that took place in the gardening art of India at this time was the expansion of the range of plants that decorate the garden at the expense of foreign ones. If before that only traditional banyans, cannes, rhododendrons, lotuses, ashokas and other local trees and flowers grew in Indian gardens, now they are planted in them exotic for India pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu, which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.Another fundamental change that took place in the gardening art of India at this time was the expansion of the range of plants that decorate the garden at the expense of foreign ones. If before that only traditional banyans, cannes, rhododendrons, lotuses, ashokas and other local trees and flowers grew in Indian gardens, now they are planted in them exotic for India pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu, which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.Another fundamental change that took place in the gardening art of India at this time was the expansion of the range of plants that decorate the garden at the expense of foreign ones. If before that only traditional banyans, cannes, rhododendrons, lotuses, ashokas and other local trees and flowers grew in Indian gardens, then from now on exotic pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu are planted in them., which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.Ashoks and other local trees and flowers, from now on they are planted in them and exotic for India pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu, which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.Ashoks and other local trees and flowers, from now on they are planted in them and exotic for India pomegranates, apple trees, gampa, bananas, chamaili and the queen of flowers - bara-mashu, which blooms all year round, for which it is rightly called "12 months". A riot of colors and aromas still fills the gardens of Amber, Jaipur, Mandor Garden - magnificent examples of the Rajput direction.

Image
Image

For all the heterogeneity of the semantic content of the concept of "Indian garden", it has a number of style-forming features that are present in almost all of its specific implementations and make the gardening art of India a unique phenomenon in world culture. Among them are the strict geometry of the composition, the unity of the house and the garden, which was inevitable due to the fact that houses in India were built for a long time without the use of glass, and the garden, thus, was a direct continuation of the house, open spaces, minimalism in details, play in contrasts, for example, the shape of the crown of trees or the color of leaves, the organization of the garden as a single environment, not subdivided into separate parks. However, the most important distinguishing feature of Indian gardens, which has been present throughout their history, is the widespread use of water elements. Channels,creating the geometry of the garden, fountains that animate an unoccupied space, austere pools or naturalistic ponds overgrown with lotuses or inhabited by ducks - all this creates a mood of contemplative calm in everyone who enters the Indian garden. However, water is not only the most important conceptual element of the garden, which forms its philosophical meaning, which in a nutshell can be described as the reproduction of endless emptiness and silence. Most of the gardens in India could not physically exist without water elements. India's hot and unpredictable climate requires abundant artificial sources of moisture. In agriculture, irrigation systems and wells were used, and water sources were included in gardens and parks as composite elements. The use of water in park construction reaches its maximum in the so-called water gardens,which did not involve the construction of reservoirs, but, on the contrary, the organization of land areas in the middle of natural ponds and lakes. Building a floating garden is an incredibly time consuming and laborious process. But the nameless, as a rule, builders in absentia are rewarded with the unspeakable admiration of the descendants contemplating them.

Popular by topic