The Element Of Flowing Lines

Table of contents:

The Element Of Flowing Lines
The Element Of Flowing Lines
Video: The Element Of Flowing Lines
Video: Elements of Art: Line | KQED Arts 2023, February
Anonim
Image
Image

Modern, art nouveau, liberty - all these are different designations of the same exquisite artistic style that conquered the enlightened world in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The “New Art”, which replaced eclecticism, proclaimed the idea of ​​the organic integrity of the content and form of objects, the priority of smooth, fluid volumes, clarity and purity of lines, and a complex play of color nuances. The refined stylization of natural forms has become an echo of the subtle moods of Oriental art in the works of Art Nouveau

Turning to garden art, however, it will be difficult to get an idea of ​​the originality of Art Nouveau gardens, in contrast to gardens and parks of the Renaissance, Classicism or other great historical styles. Modern, in fact, did not grow into a full-fledged new style, i.e. a system of artistic principles that would be expressed in all manifestations of the culture of a given era. He established himself mainly in architecture, design, painting and arts and crafts.

The whole variety of garden styles actually fits into only two main ones: regular (formal) and landscape.

The first style direction (the oldest in gardening art) is based on the correct geometric shapes and symmetry of garden elements. A regular planning principle means the creation of an "artificial" natural environment, completely subordinate to the will and whims of man.

The second direction, on the contrary, meets our desire to merge with the surrounding nature, to capture its natural beauty. Strictly speaking, man-made landscaped gardens cannot be called “natural”, but sometimes they are stylized like natural landscapes so skillfully that they seem to be real standards of natural perfection.

Image
Image
Image
Image

Works of landscape gardening, defined as Art Nouveau gardens, in fact, belong to the landscape direction. Soft and flexible outlines of relief forms and trajectories of paths, the absence of right angles and lines, regular geometric shapes, pronounced asymmetry of flower beds, reservoirs, decorative plant groups, color and textured contrasts of plantings - all this is organically combined with the principles of landscape style.

And yet, what tricks should you use to try to recreate the poetic, decadent atmosphere of modernity in the garden? A certain belonging of the garden to this style can be achieved by introducing silhouettes of insects, birds, flexible female figures (mermaids) in the details of gazebos and bridges, pergolas and trellises, as well as using plant ornaments typical for Art Nouveau in wrought-iron fences, elements of home decor.

E. Galle's vase. Laminated glass, thread, 1900
E. Galle's vase. Laminated glass, thread, 1900
C. R. Mackintosh's sofa
C. R. Mackintosh's sofa

In addition, planted trees with a weeping or umbrella-shaped crown shape: grafted willow, mountain ash, elm or birch trees will help create the desired effect. In such a garden, climbing and creeping plants characteristic of the floral art and paintings of Art Nouveau are quite appropriate - maiden grapes, clematis, hops, bindweed, morning glory, sweet peas, nasturtium, pumpkin and zucchini. Climbing roses, capable of creating bizarre curvilinear patterns, fit perfectly into the overall picture, but the graceful wisteria, unfortunately, will have to be left for the southern gardens.

A necessary touch is a breakdown of flower beds, mainly mixborders. It is here that flowers reign in all their splendor, which have become symbols of Art Nouveau - poppies, peonies, irises, lilies, daffodils. Dynamic mixborders, constantly changing in their continuous flowering like a snake, wriggle between the bright green of the lawn and the dark green background of the bushes.

Stained Glass L. Tiffany, 1898-1900, Boston, Massachusetts
Stained Glass L. Tiffany, 1898-1900, Boston, Massachusetts
Dragon Gate by Antoni Gaudí, 1884-87, Barcelona
Dragon Gate by Antoni Gaudí, 1884-87, Barcelona

A garden tending to the Art Nouveau style is created as a fusion of beauty and utility. Nevertheless, the role of beauty and decorativeness in it invariably prevails, so it is not worth it, perhaps, to arrange a utility yard and a full-fledged vegetable garden on the site. And the orchard here will mainly perform decorative functions.

The emergence of Art Nouveau at the dawn of the last century did not lead to the creation of a new, independent garden style, but brought an additional bit of grace and symbolism into the landscape direction of garden and park art.

For artists, designers, architects, the flora has served as a rich source of ideas and images. The magic of nature, the charm of garden herbs and flowers are embodied in many original creations of Art Nouveau. The poetry of curved leaves and stems in the architectural masterpieces of A. Gaudí, the mystical beauty of irises and primroses half-hidden by flexible branches in the carved furniture of C. McIntosh, the refined sensuality of the flowing forms of orchids, callas and lilies in the amazing colored glass by E. Galle and L. Tiffany will remain in centuries, as a reminder of this graceful and dynamic decorative style.

Andrey Lysikov

candidate of biological sciences

(Based on materials from the magazine "Stylish Garden", January 2004)

Popular by topic