Landscape History Of The All-Russian Exhibition Center

Landscape History Of The All-Russian Exhibition Center
Landscape History Of The All-Russian Exhibition Center
Video: Landscape History Of The All-Russian Exhibition Center
Video: ⁴ᴷ⁶⁰ Гуляющая Москва: Центр Москвы - ВДНХ - ВВЦ 2023, February
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VDNKh

The territory of the All-Russian Exhibition Center is part of the previously existing vast forest area of ​​the Ostankino estate, which belonged to the 18th century to one of the richest Moscow nobles - Count N.P. Sheremetev. The history of these places is remarkable, which can be traced back to the end of the 16th century.

Even during the creation of the Moscow state, Ivan Kalita laid the foundation for the construction of country residences, laying the foundation of the famous wooden palace in Kolomenskoye. Gradually, other country palaces arose around Moscow: Izmailovsky, Vorobyevsky, Pokrovsky, Preobrazhensky. Large territories with forests and arable land were granted to those close to the tsars, and world-famous estates of the Russian aristocracy arose on them - Arkhangelskoye, Kuskovo, Kuzminki, etc.

Among these estates, the Sheremetevs' estate - Ostankino stood out, which originally, like all other estates, was exclusively for economic purposes. Only in the second half of the 17th century, innovations of an entertainment nature appear in country estates, and they become parks.

The dynamics of changes in the natural landscape of this part of the Moscow region is directly related to the history of the creation of the Ostankino Park - one of the masterpieces of Russian landscape art.

In the 16th century, the landscape here was a slightly hilly area with dense forest. Mostly these were oak forests and birch groves. In the valleys of three rivers - a tributary of the Moskva River - the Yauza and its two tributaries flowing into it from the west, Kamenka and Likhoborka - mostly willows, alder and aspen grew. The forests abounded with game, roe deer, deer, elk were found in them, there were many birds, bears, foxes and hares were found.

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Ostankino park

At the end of the XVI century. the village of Ostankino belonged to V.Ya. Shchelkanov. It was a small estate with a wooden church, boyar mansions and outbuildings located on the bank of the pond. Even then, Siberian cedars and an oak grove, partially preserved to this day, were planted here. After the estate passed into the possession of the princes of Cherkassky in 1611, the village grew significantly and the estate acquired an entertainment character. By the middle of the 17th century. the village consisted of 37 households, of which 12 belonged to falconers, 9 to kennels, 7 to grooms and 3 to gardeners. At this time, a garden was laid at the new mansions, and a stone Trinity Church was built next to the pond (the architect was the serf P.S. Potekhin). Ostankino becomes a place for celebrations, hunting and other amusements, including concerts, balls and "mashkerads" of the Moscow nobility.The regular palace garden included a cedar grove, linden alleys, flower beds, and covered bend paths. The orchards of the estate, located nearby, were famous for berries and fruits. There were grown apples, pears, cherries, red and black currants, raspberries, gooseberries. There was also a large greenhouse farm, melons and watermelons were grown in greenhouses.

In 1743, the estate passed to the richest nobleman - Count Peter Borisovich Sheremetev, the son of Field Marshal - Peter I's comrade-in-arms. The master's "amusement house" completed the main alley of a regular garden, which had an almost square shape of the plan, crossed crosswise and diagonally by straight alleys. On three sides - from the north, west and south, a forest was adjacent to the garden, and from the east - there was a village (a settlement for palace employees and artisans). The Sheremetevs also owned another richest estate - Kuskovo, where they lived mainly, considering Ostankino an economic patrimony. There is information that at this time five large greenhouses of the estate were delivering peaches, lemons,pomegranates and other overseas fruits.

The main period of formation of the ensemble begins after the estate is inherited by the son of P.B.Sheremetev - N.P.Sheremetev (late 1780s). He was a superbly educated, musical and very talented person who created an acting troupe from the most capable serf peasant children.

He draws on the best artistic forces to design his Ostankino residence, selects and evaluates projects himself. The construction of a new palace-theater and, at the same time, an art gallery with a museum was entrusted to them by the serf architect A.F. Mironov, G.E. Dikushin and P.I. Argunov.

The construction of the new palace entailed the redevelopment and expansion of the old park, and in this the main role belongs to A.F. Mironov. The central part of the park, adjacent to the palace, was an amusement garden, consisting of an extensive parterre in front of the main facade of the building, bosquet-gardens behind it, and two plots adjoining the western and eastern wings of the palace and designed in a landscape style. In general, the garden has retained its regular character, although the landscape areas were planned out picturesquely, in an "English style". The parterre, slightly lowered in the central part, was bordered by an envelope trellis path, against which marble vases and herm busts stood out. The amusement garden was conceived by A.F. Mironov as a continuation of the palace-theater, a kind of "green foyer" with lobbies for walking during intermissions.Behind the green carpet of the parterre there was a round open area, which together with it forms an additional auditorium in the garden, possibly intended for theatrical performances.

The landscape sections of the garden were located symmetrically with respect to the main axis of the building, but they were solved in different ways: in the east, several small lawns were connected to each other by whimsical winding paths; in the west, it was planned to build an amphitheater facing the Italian pavilion and a Chinese grove. The entire palace park was separated from the rest of the park by a moat.

AF Mironov, striving as much as possible to preserve the old garden with its trellises and alleys, thus pays tribute to his passion for the landscape style. This duality inherent in the design of the garden was the reason that Sheremetev entrusted the design of the garden to PI Argunov, who created a project more in line with the spirit of the times. In it, landscape planning techniques are more decisively introduced, and a much lesser role belongs to regular elements. So the parterre was turned into an elongated clearing, surrounded by free groups of trees, bushes and a covered path.

P.I. Argunov proposes to complement the eastern part of the garden with a "Parnassus" slide and create a sunlit glade in the center of the garden, dissected by curtains of oak, larch and maple trees, creating the effect of deep perspective. At the top of Parnassus there was a romantic ruin, and farther away was a gazebo. A meadow, a hill, statues and preserved old larches can be seen even now.

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Ostankino Estate

Outside the palace garden, in the northern part, a vast pond was dug, with bays and peninsulas, and boating along it with night fireworks was one of the favorite pastimes of the owners of the estate. The park alleys led to oak groves, to hunting grounds, across the Kamenka river. It was at that time that six large and small ponds were built on this river. The road to the valley of the Yauza River ran along the more elevated right bank of this system of ponds. The forest area was gradually turning into a park, to which N.P. Sheremetev pays no less attention than the palace. The archive of the museum contains his "Command to the gardeners": To make paths in the same way as they were made in the Tsaritsinsky garden, and be of two varieties: one for pedestrians, and on the other one could ride in wheelchairs, and the more paths will be made in that English garden, all the better".Decorative deciduous trees are planted in the park: maple, birch, and only along the banks of the Kamenka are willows, alder and aspen preserved. Many flowering shrubs are added: lilac, viburnum, bird cherry. Rowan, oak, linden, hazel are added to the plantings, and apple and cherry trees are added to the fruit ("for spring flowering").

The Sheremetevs' entertainment estate is widely known not only in Russia, but also abroad. It is curious that the strict symmetry of the ensemble, broken only by the building of the church, was thought out in detail. On the opposite side from the church, at the same distance from the axis of the ensemble, a grove of tall trees was planted, surrounded by a fence, creating the illusion of visual balance.

It should be noted that Ostankino Park was still considered less significant than the previously created park in Kuskovo, also owned by the Sheremetevs. V. Ya. Kurbatov considers him in its main part as "imitation of Kuskov." He further writes: "… the park in Ostankino is distinguished by the fact that instead of a large parterre in front of the palace there is a horseshoe-shaped flower garden … On the opposite side of the spectacular Ostankino palace there is a wide courtyard of honor, enclosed by a lattice, in front of it is a wide pond, and behind the pond there is a clearing. at the time of the arrival of Emperor Paul I, and the trees were cut down in advance and each had a man. At the moment when the emperor's carriage was level with the clearing, the trees were knocked down and a view of the palace opened up. " (V.Ya. Kurbatov. Gardens and parks. Petrograd, 1916, p. 366)

At the beginning of the 20th century, the park was already severely neglected.

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Levitan I.I. Ostankino. In the park.

The further fate of Ostankino Park does not differ from the fate of most landscape park compositions of the 18th century. For some time (until the 1830s) it was carefully maintained, and then, when the "golden" era of noble estates ends, it begins to fall into desolation. By the end of the 19th century, the lands of the estate in Ostankino began to be built up with summer cottages, and the park became a place for walking for the townspeople. Crowded celebrations are held there, although the entrance to the "amusement" palace garden was limited.

By 1917, a large part of the estate was still a forest massif, although it was significantly thinned out and degraded.

Thus, for more than two centuries, the territory of the estate has undergone significant changes associated not only with the construction of buildings and structures, but also with the impact on the landscape: the natural forest area gradually acquires a park character by replanting; damming the Kamenka river leads to the creation of a system of ponds crossing the territory from west to east; dug ponds appear, the park's layout leads to the cutting of glades, which turn into alleys; part of the territory is being developed for orchards and a greenhouse farm, as well as for the construction of villages for service personnel. By the end of the 19th century, the area became even more urbanized, with the construction of summer cottages, new roads appeared. In the 20th century, this is no longer a distant suburb of Moscow, but a museum complex included in the development.

Realizing the tremendous value of this massif, they tried to preserve it in every possible way, securing the main part of the territory in the general plan of Moscow for park-like objects. This is the Main Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences with an area of ​​360 hectares - in the northern part of the territory; from the west, 76 hectares were given to the Park of Culture and Rest. Dzerzhinsky; the eastern part and the northeast went to the territory of VDNKh, and all these objects, together with the protected area of ​​the Ostankino estate-museum, make up a large north-western park complex of the capital with a total area of ​​about 1000 hectares.

The design of new parks in this area, as well as of the exhibition complex, was carried out on a competitive basis, and the best architectural forces were attracted to it. It was attended by architects L.S. Zalesskaya, M.P. Korzhev, I.M. Petrov, Yu.S. Grinevetsky, M.I. Prokhorov and many others.

The author of the project of the new "park of culture and rest" was the architect Yu.S. Grinevetsky. The park was located on the territory to the west of the palace ensemble, in the existing oak forest and used the old landscape park. By the time of design, a stadium had already been built in it, paths to the ponds had been trodden, but an array of oak groves, including century-old trees, was still preserved.

According to the project, the entire territory was cut by the main planning axis, emphasized by a flower parterre. The site of the museum-palace was preserved as a reserve.

An additional network of walking paths was created in the dense oak forest, and a one-day recreation center was located. New venues were added to the stadium. (L.S.Zalesskaya, Greening the capital. M., 1953).

It should be noted that the project, according to which the geometric layout scheme was superimposed on the existing park massif, did not take into account the existing landscape situation, was distinguished by a certain schematism and excessive splendor. Its implementation, associated with numerous fellings, led to the deplorable state of the park.

Currently, the 10-hectare palace part of Ostankino Park is a nature reserve and belongs to the Museum of Serf Art. The park has the status of a monument of garden and park art. On the territory of the park, there are about 90 oak trees more than two centuries old, and two larches, planted in 1795 next to the parterre.

The Ostankino palace ensemble continues to remain and retain its significance as the historical nucleus of the entire garden and park complex, which includes the territory of VDNKh, although the palace itself cannot already serve as an architectural dominant of this zone, since high buildings are built nearby (VDNKh pavilions, Cosmos hotel, TV center, multi-storey residential building).

The landscape of the site allotted for the construction of the new Main Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences (authors - architect I.M. Petrov and landscape architect L.E. Rosenberg) has also undergone changes. The design of the garden, and soon the construction began in 1945, immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War, although the first design proposals date back to earlier times (Sokolov S.Ya. Foreproject of the All-Union Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow. Soviet Botany, 1938, No. 2).

The territory assigned to the Main Botanical Garden, as well as the composition of future exhibitions and their species diversity, put it among the largest botanical gardens in the world (the total area of ​​the project was 360 hectares).

The project envisaged the creation of the Yauzsko-Likhoborsky reservoir on the basis of these two rivers, three entrances to the garden - from the Vladykinskoye highway and Botanicheskaya street and from the side of the now built metro station "Botanichesky sad" and several large structures, among which the most significant is the main laboratory building (it was supposed to build at first two buildings - a herbarium and a laboratory one), an exposition greenhouse-climatron for tropical plants and a stock greenhouse with collections of subtropical and tropical plants, intended for scientific work.

The entire southern border of the GBS is directly adjacent to the territory of VDNKh. Subsequently, the entrance to the exhibition was built directly from the botanical garden.

According to the project, the main exposition building, the climatron, was to be located on the bank of the reservoir, and a straight long clearing was laid to it from the entrance from Botanicheskaya Street. The rest of the roads and paths received a free scenic tracing in the plan and connected numerous exposition sites: an arboretum (with an area of ​​76 hectares), botanical and geographical expositions (the Department of Flora of the USSR, including the flora of the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Far East, Siberia and the European part of the country - total area of ​​25 hectares), cultural and wild useful plants (16.5 hectares), taxonomy department (24.5 hectares), fruit plants (6 hectares), ornamental (16 hectares), etc. - total exposition area - 178 hectares. Thus, the natural landscape of the site has changed significantly, replenished with a large number of completely new plants that are not typical for the Moscow region,compiled collections in the open field, for which the existing plantings were a unifying background and under the canopy of which they gradually acclimatized to new natural conditions.

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Historic oak

At the same time, it was possible to preserve the main core of the forest - the oak grove, which, through the efforts of the garden's scientists, acquired the status of a reserve. Its preservation was facilitated by its placement almost in the center of the garden.

The Likhoborka River, flowing in the northern part of the territory along the main alley, was transformed, like Kamenka, into a series of small ponds, united by a picturesque stream with small waterfalls and rock passages. Many interesting exhibitions have been built, including a rose garden and a collection area of ​​roses, a garden of continuous flowering, demonstrating the techniques of landscape architecture of parks, etc. During the construction of exhibitions of a botanical and geographical nature, an artificial relief was used to exhibit plants in conditions as close as possible to the natural conditions of their growth.

In 1983-87, a Japanese garden was created (according to the project and with the direct participation of Japanese landscape architects), and this also significantly changed the landscape of this part of the garden: another system of ponds with a cascade of a closed cycle appeared, for which a pumping station had to be built, new plants were planted, structures and small architectural forms, traditional for the Japanese garden, appeared. Nevertheless, the existing trees have been carefully preserved and, in general, the appearance of this part of the garden has not been disturbed, although it has acquired a different character.

Some project proposals have not been implemented. In particular, the Botanical Garden still does not have an entrance from the Botanichesky Sad metro station, because the main road, limiting its territory from the northeast, is preserved, and part of the left bank of the Yauza River, assigned to the garden in the general plan of Moscow, is still a wasteland with dying groves and plantings.

The main botanical garden, separated from VDNKh by a water mirror and partly by a fence, nevertheless forms a single whole with it - the massifs of plantations visually close together, move from one to another, forming the northern green wedge of Moscow. This is understandable: in the past, both territories were a single forest.

Still, the history of the creation of the exhibition has its own characteristics, just as the functions and layouts of both park objects are different.

The history of changes in the natural landscape of the territory on which the modern All-Russian Exhibition Center is located testifies to the gradual (during the 16th-18th centuries) development of the natural forest area of ​​the Ostankino estate and its transformation into a park landscape. It is associated not only with the construction of buildings and structures (a palace complex, a church, a greenhouse farm, a village), but also with a change in the quantitative and species composition of plantings, the development of part of the territory for orchards and vegetable gardens, with damming the Kamenka river and turning it into a series of ponds …

A much more intensive change in the landscape is associated with an increase in anthropogenic load on it already in the 19th century, when a significant part of the territory is allocated for summer cottages, estates appear in the floodplain of the Yauza River, and the park becomes a venue for mass festivities for citizens.

Finally, in the XX century, there is an accelerated degradation of the landscape associated with the construction of industrial enterprises of various purposes instead of estates with manor parks, dumping into the river. Yauzu and Likhoborku are toxic waste and cause water poisoning and soil pollution, which in turn causes significant plant loss. Nevertheless, some of the old trees (oak, linden, pine), which are 100-200 years old, still remain on the territory under consideration. This is due to the fact that in the General Plan for the Development of Moscow as early as 1935 this entire territory, including the Ostankino Park, the Park of Culture and Leisure named after Dzerzhinsky, the Main Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and VDNKh of the USSR, was considered as a park complex with an area of ​​about 1000 hectares, and a component of the green diameter of the city.Therefore, all further transformations of the landscape of this territory were carried out along the line of creating a park landscape, and on the territory of VDNKh itself - to creating an artificial urban landscape with a pronounced character of an exhibition complex. It includes a hydraulic system based on the ponds of the river. Heaters with fountains and ornamental pools, and open ground exhibitions are aimed at demonstrating landscape architecture techniques along with techniques for growing individual agricultural crops.and expositions of open ground are aimed at demonstrating the techniques of landscape architecture along with techniques for growing individual agricultural crops.and expositions of open ground are aimed at demonstrating the techniques of landscape architecture along with techniques for growing individual agricultural crops.

Material provided by the management of the Floriculture and Landscaping Pavilion

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