Table of contents:
There are different ways to create reservoirs. Any body of water, first of all, has a decorative function and should please the eye. The easiest way to create it is to install a ready-made form, it is permissible for reservoirs up to 3-5 m 3. Finished forms are made of low pressure polyethylene or fiberglass. Fiberglass, as a rule, have a larger volume, more powerful and durable, and withstand the pressure of frozen soil well. When installing the finished form, a sand cushion and thorough spilling of the cracks between the form and the pit are required.
The creation of a reservoir of unlimited area is possible with the help of a film. This technology came to us from abroad, where initially black or green low-pressure polyethylene films were used. For climatic reasons, these films did not take root in our country, but in some countries they are still sold. The next step was the emergence of PVC films and, finally, synthetic rubber. The latter are more flexible and easy to install.
When creating a reservoir, you need to remember that an improperly dug pit, in the form of a "pit from a projectile", can make the reservoir very dangerous, especially for children and animals. Over time, the film becomes overgrown with slimy algae, becomes slippery, and it is impossible to get out of such a pit.
Certain difficulties are entailed by the construction of a reservoir in the immediate vicinity of trees, in the forest. In this case, you will need not only additional protection from the roots, but also constant efforts to clean up falling foliage. In addition, the shade will interfere with the development of many aquatic plants. It is best to avoid such an arrangement.
How to properly organize a reservoir?
First, you need to choose a good location. It is optimal if the reservoir is in the sun for half the day.
First you need to outline the contours of the future reservoir with a hose or rope, pegs. Mark the areas of the terraces. Depending on the size of the reservoir, there may be several of them, but the most important are three: deep water, shallow water or "beach" area and a coastal swamp area. If you plan to launch fish into the reservoir, then you need to remember that the fish requires a depth of at least 1.5 m and winter aeration. For the nymphs in our strip, it is best to use special containers, which are placed as high as possible on the terraces in the summer, where the water warms up faster. And in winter, on the contrary, they are placed deeper, where the water will definitely not freeze.
It is useful to lay a curb tape along the perimeter of the reservoir, since often the soil along the edge of the reservoir is bulk, and only the parent rock keeps its shape. The tape will serve as a boundary for compaction of bulk soil, which completely settles and becomes dense only for 2-3 years. The tape also protects the reservoir from overflowing in the rain and during construction will help level the level of the entire water area.
The excavated pit is lined first with geotextile, then with a film. If you plan to decorate the pond with stones, then another layer of geotextile should be laid on top of the film so as not to damage the film when installing stones. The optimal slope of the walls of the reservoir to prevent soil shattering is 30-35 degrees.
The pond looks very nice if there is a "beach" zone in it. To do this, soil or pebbles are poured over the film in shallow water, where plants can then be planted and where the bottom will be clearly visible. The film must be brought far to the shore, capturing the swamp zone, so that the surrounding soil does not flood. This is a common mistake: a capillary outflow of water from a reservoir is created, due to the contact of geotextiles with the ground, or through the folds of an incorrectly laid film (membrane). If the coastline will be decorated with stones, then the film is also taken up, behind the stone. With this arrangement of the coast, the observer will not see the blackness of the film, but the coastal stone. Laying a stone on the bottom of the reservoir is not necessary, because below the level of 1 m of the bottom is practically invisible.
Consider the case of constructing a steep bank. If the coastal soil is dense, does not sag, and withstands stones, the coastline does not require additional strengthening. But more often, if the shore is loose, bulk, you will need to be reinforced with piles. For a reservoir with steep banks, bridges and berths will also be appropriate.
In the event that a lawn comes close to the edge of the reservoir, the film should also go out into the shore zone, only decoration will be different. It is convenient, for example, to use coconut fiber pockets for plants. Coconut fiber does not rot, it stays in water for a long time - 10-15 years.
Recently there has been a trend towards the construction of swimming ponds. Swimming in a decorative pond is not recommended - equipment is usually placed in it, and plants will not like it either. One possible solution is to combine the idea of a decorative pond and a garden pool in the form of a swimming pond.
What is the peculiarity of the swimming pool? In fact, this is also a pool. It can be beautiful in its own way - the water in it is transparent, it has strict geometric lines and depth sufficient for swimming, but the shore zone has irregular outlines of a natural shape, similar to a wild pond. Here the "beach" zone is always present, its depth is 60-80 cm, and it is in it that ornamental plants are planted in containers. It can also be decorated with source stones, decorative figures, a fountain.
Thus, when combining a swimming pool and a decorative pond, the swimming part - it is also a deep water zone - has the correct geometric shape (circle, oval, rectangle, trapezoid), and the decorative part - "beach" - frames it from all sides.
During the construction of a swimming pond, the film is laid on the entire surface of the pit, then the walls of the swimming part are erected directly on top of the film, soil is poured to create a "beach" zone of the required depth, the edge of the film along the coastline is fixed and decorated. Water purification equipment is located in a special niche outside the reservoir. For such a reservoir, you will also need a filter, which is installed at the water level, and a pump. Aerators are used to enrich water with oxygen. It is important to oxygenate the water as often as possible.
A swimming reservoir, like an ornamental pond, can be raised above ground level, in this case, part of the water is drained to ground level for the winter. In an ordinary decorative pond, it is also necessary to release part of the volume for the flow of melt water.
For water purification, there are special biological products that not only maintain the transparency of the water, but also enrich it with oxygen, and have a positive effect on the health of fish. Biologicals are absolutely safe for both humans and the inhabitants of the reservoir. In addition, they are characterized by high efficiency - only 100-150 g of a biological product are required per 10,000 liters of water. It works for 3-4 months, unlike chemicals that need to be added every 2-3 weeks. Biological products can be used for both decorative and swimming ponds.
Based on the materials of the seminar by
Tatiana Berezhinskaya (BTA-group company)
at the exhibition Flowers-2008.