Landscape Park Alexandria - The Last Stronghold Of Romance

Landscape Park Alexandria - The Last Stronghold Of Romance
Landscape Park Alexandria - The Last Stronghold Of Romance

Video: Landscape Park Alexandria - The Last Stronghold Of Romance

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Landscape 2023, February
Anonim
The main entrance to the Palace-cottage
The main entrance to the Palace-cottage

The main entrance to the Cottage Palace When you visit castles, country estates or city residences of rulers or simply famous people, for some reason you perceive them only as museums that must be visited, but not as human housing in which people lived, worked, loved, raised children, suffered, rejoiced … Maybe because the spirit of the house has disappeared over the decades and even centuries of absence of the owners, or the numerous destruction and subsequent restorations have forever changed the building, made it uninhabited? It is a completely different matter in Alexandria Park, which is part of the famous palace and park ensemble Peterhof (Petrodvorets) in the Leningrad Region.

Initially, Peter I allocated these lands for dachas to his subjects, the owners changed over the years, including Alexander Menshikov, then they passed to the princes Dolgoruky, after Empress Anna Ioannovna arranged a park here for hunting. And only in 1825, Emperor Nicholas I became the owner, who presented these properties to his wife Alexandra Fedorovna (nee Prussian princess Frederica-Louise-Charlotte-Wilhelmina) and the estate was named Alexandria in her honor. At that time, it is unlikely that we could freely visit these places - the personal property of the imperial family was vigilantly guarded by the Cossacks and the police.

Alexandria Park Map
Alexandria Park Map

Alexandria Park Map

The Alexandria Park was founded in 1826, but work in it continued over the years. The park gradually acquired its special features, it seemed that romantic, cozy corners were formed by themselves, paths were laid, bridges were built … At the same time, under the leadership of the architect Adam Menelas, the construction of a country house or cottage began. In three years the Gothic-style cottage palace was built. Nicholas I, the son of the knight emperor Paul I, was also brought up in the romantic tradition of chivalry. Despite his love affairs, the lady of his heart has always remained "White Rose", as they called Princess Charlotte. As a tribute to knightly traditions, the facades of the Palace-Cottage are decorated with the coat of arms of Alexandria - a shield with a sword surrounded by a wreath of white roses, a symbol invented by the poet V.A. Zhukovsky,teacher of the Russian language of the Empress and educator of the heirs.

The coat of arms of Alexandria on the facades of the Palace-cottage - a tribute to chivalry
The coat of arms of Alexandria on the facades of the Palace-cottage - a tribute to chivalry

The coat of arms of Alexandria on the facades of the Palace-cottage - a tribute to chivalry

Northern facade of the Palace-cottage
Northern facade of the Palace-cottage

Northern facade of the Palace-cottage

Located on two terraces - the coastal one, which borders on the Gulf of Finland and the upper one, on which the main buildings are located, the park covers about 115 hectares. From west to east, as straight as an arrow, the park is pierced by Nikolskaya Alley. This is perhaps the only straight-line road in Alexandria, all the other alleys, paths and paths wind, bend, intertwine with each other, creating a bizarre network so that the landscape can be viewed most effectively from different points. Thanks to the work of the wonderful gardener P.I. Erler, we can still admire the beautiful landscape park in which groups of trees (mostly familiar to Russia - birch, oak, linden, maple, ash, poplar) alternate with cozy meadows and lawns. Rare exotic trees and shrubs have also been preserved here.A deep natural ravine, in which a waterfall was made with the help of a dam, is skillfully inscribed into the landscape. The pond dug in front of the northern facade of the house was connected to the general water system of the park. Small architectural forms, such as gazebos, garden sculptures and pavilions, in which the Gothic style was also visible, gave the park a romantic character. One of the interesting architectural finds by A. Menelas was a bridge built of roughly hewn stone slabs and granite boulders with birch railings. The bridge, named Ruinny, as there were the ruins of the Menshikov palace "Moncourage" nearby, ironically after the war of 1941-1945. he himself was in ruins.Small architectural forms, such as gazebos, garden sculptures and pavilions, in which the Gothic style was also visible, gave the park a romantic character. One of the interesting architectural finds by A. Menelas was a bridge built of roughly hewn stone slabs and granite boulders with birch railings. The bridge, named Ruinny, as there were the ruins of the Menshikov palace "Moncourage" nearby, ironically after the war of 1941-1945. he himself was in ruins.Small architectural forms, such as gazebos, garden sculptures and pavilions, in which the Gothic style was also visible, gave the park a romantic character. One of the interesting architectural finds by A. Menelas was a bridge built of roughly hewn stone slabs and granite boulders with birch railings. The bridge, named Ruinny, as there were the ruins of the Menshikov palace "Moncourage" nearby, ironically after the war of 1941-1945. he himself was in ruins.ironically after the war of 1941-1945. he himself was in ruins.ironically after the war of 1941-1945. he himself was in ruins.

Coat of arms of Alexandria in the form of a flower bed (ageratum, cineraria, balsam)
Coat of arms of Alexandria in the form of a flower bed (ageratum, cineraria, balsam)

Coat of arms of Alexandria in the form of a flower bed (ageratum, cineraria, balsam)

After passing the Ruin Bridge, we will see the Farmer's Palace. Initially, it was a real farm with cows, then the building was completed, redesigned and eventually turned into a real two-story palace, which became the summer residence of the next emperor - Alexander II. There is information that it was in the Farmer's Palace that the emperor conceived a decree on the abolition of serfdom. The farm itself was transferred to a specially built house near the southern border of Alexandria, which is called the New Farm.

One of the pearls of Alexandria is the summer house church of the royal family, consecrated in honor of Alexander Nevsky. Many parts of this building were made of cast iron, the statues of the saints were made of copper. The windows were decorated with mirrored stained-glass windows. The elements of Gothic architecture are most clearly expressed in the building of the church, perhaps that is why it is better known as the Gothic Chapel.

Between the Farmer's Palace and the Gothic Chapel, there is a magnificent stone. The inscription says that this is a tombstone to Peter Ivanovich Erler, a master gardener who took part in the creation of many parks, contributed to the compilation of the "Practical manual for the gardening team", which at that time was actively used by many professional gardeners. Initially P.I. Erler was buried at the Holy Trinity cemetery, but in 1970 his remains were transferred to the territory of Alexandria. Not far from the Farmer's Palace there is another monument - a granite obelisk, erected in 1932. This is a kind of tribute to all known and unknown people who participated in the creation of the parks and palaces of Peterhof. The inscription on the marble board reads: "To working people - builders of Peterhof." Probably,this monument rightfully belongs to the modern servants of the Peterhof museum complex, to all workers, agronomists, architects, caretakers …

Sculpture of Tsarevich Alexei
Sculpture of Tsarevich Alexei

Sculpture of Tsarevich Alexei

A later building is the so-called Lower Dacha or Lower Palace, located on the northern border of Alexandria, on the very shore of the Gulf of Finland. It all started with the construction of a pavilion of "Italian architecture" for Emperor Alexander III, then at the behest of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II, the pavilion turned into a four-story palace in the Italian style. It was here, on August 12, 1904, that the heir to the throne, Tsarevich Alexei, was born. In the Alexandria park he had his own small field, on which he sowed rye and picked it himself with a sickle. Fulfilling his behest: "When I die, put a small monument to me in the park," a sculpture of a youth in a sailor's suit was placed near the Palace-cottage. Unfortunately, only the ruins of the Lower Dacha have survived to this day.

Numerous visitors to the park and its buildings note that, in contrast to the nearby state palaces and regular parks, the quiet, almost reserved corner of Alexandria leaves a feeling of presence … Who? Probably the former owners, members of the royal Romanov family, Russian autocrats. It seems that someone has just left the office, that the voices of children playing are still heard in the park, and the unfinished embroidery will wait for its mistress.

Memorial cross in honor of the last imperial family and heir to the throne at the ruins of the Lower Dacha
Memorial cross in honor of the last imperial family and heir to the throne at the ruins of the Lower Dacha

Memorial cross in honor of the last imperial family and heir to the throne at the ruins of the Lower Dacha

Simple and elegant solution
Simple and elegant solution

Simple and elegant solution

Here is what the last Empress Alexandra Feodorovna (Princess Alice of Hesse-Darmstadt) wrote in her diary, being the wife of Emperor Nicholas II and the mother of a large family: “The main center of any person's life should be his home. This is the place where children grow up - they grow physically, strengthen their health and absorb everything that makes them true and noble men and women. In the home where children grow up, their surroundings and everything that happens affects them, and even the smallest detail can have a wonderful or harmful effect. Even the nature around them shapes the future character. Everything beautiful that children’s eyes see is imprinted in their sensitive hearts. Wherever a child is brought up, impressions of the place where he grew up affect his character. Rooms in which our children will sleep, play, live,we must make it as beautiful as the means allow. Children love pictures, and if the pictures in the house are clean and good, then they wonderfully influence them, make them more sophisticated. But the house itself, clean, tastefully decorated, with simple decorations and with a pleasant environment, has an invaluable impact on the upbringing of children."

Panorama of the Gulf of Finland at the northern border of Alexandria Park
Panorama of the Gulf of Finland at the northern border of Alexandria Park

Panorama of the Gulf of Finland at the northern border of Alexandria Park

Flower decoration of the park near the Palace-cottage
Flower decoration of the park near the Palace-cottage

Flower decoration of the park near the Palace-cottage

I would very much like our, albeit small, gardens and houses to be not only land and walls, but also a real cozy, tastefully decorated House, in which not only large funds have been invested, but also great love.

Photo by the author

Popular by topic