Eight Volumes About Russian Apples. In Dvoryaninovo, In The Estate Of Bolotov, The First Russian Agronomist

Eight Volumes About Russian Apples. In Dvoryaninovo, In The Estate Of Bolotov, The First Russian Agronomist
Eight Volumes About Russian Apples. In Dvoryaninovo, In The Estate Of Bolotov, The First Russian Agronomist
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Photo from the site www.roadplanet.ru
Photo from the site www.roadplanet.ru

Photo from the site www.roadplanet.ru

Dvoryaninovo - from the village of Rusyatino, three kilometers. From Polenov to Bolotovskaya estate Dvoryaninovo Zaoksky district of Tula region - 15-20 kilometers of good road.

Bolotov is the one who, in his memoirs, described in detail the execution of Pugachev, which he witnessed. Although his book (the title is almost an adventurous novel - "The Life and Adventures of Andrei Bolotov, described by him for his descendants") is valuable not only for this. And about Bolotov himself, the current director of the estate museum, Sergei Vladimirovich Glushkov, proudly says that he will not yield to Lomonosov in importance. He was engaged in everything: landscape design, gardening, pond farming. He came up with an apparatus - very reminiscent of today's electrophoresis - and used it to treat peasants for various diseases.

The life of A.T. Bolotov itself is like an adventurous novel, however, similar to the lives of many contemporaries of his circle: Count Orlov invited Bolotov to take part in a conspiracy against Peter III, he refused, retired and came here. A friend of Novikov, he published the magazine "Economic Store" for the landowners.

The director of the museum calls Bolotov either "Lomonosov with a biological bias", or the first physiotherapist in Russia who widely used various medicinal herbs in his practice. Everything is correct. For example, Bolotov read in some ancient Roman treatises about the miraculous beech. He immediately began to grow it, consumed it himself and treated the peasants with it. By the way, the electric apparatus with which Bolotov treated the peasants has survived; it is on display at the museum. The rest of the farm has to start from scratch.

Philosophical pavilion in Dvoryaninovo. Photo by the author
Philosophical pavilion in Dvoryaninovo. Photo by the author

Philosophical pavilion in Dvoryaninovo. Photo by the author

The fact that the museum-estate is not federal, but of local, Tula subordination, was beneficial: it was possible, for example, to obtain permission to sow potatoes, and then sell them: from federal museums-estates, museums-reserves and today there is still no such possibility. Why potatoes? As you know, Peter the Great began to plant it in Russia, but did not achieve success. They recognized that there is her in Russia, they began to respect, so to speak, largely thanks to the efforts of Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov.

There was some trickery. Bolotov came up with the idea of ​​setting up guards near the potato beds, and then removed the sentries for two to three hours. The people realized: since they are guarded, then they must take. So potatoes entered the life of the peasants. Bolotov also made chips, calling them "potato chips".

When the potatoes harvested last year were sold, they bought a sterlet through the regional department of culture (!), “Five ponds were planted” (I liked this professional jargon of Glushkov): under Bolotov, sturgeons were found in all nine ponds that Bolotov built in a cascade, connected by a single “engineering and technological "chain. Under Soviet rule, this entire system was destroyed, puddles were green in the place of the former ponds. Only at the end of the 80s began work on the restoration of the ponds and the estate itself. The museum was opened in 1993, the basis of the exposition was made up of items from the Tula Museum of Local Lore.

Glushkov is not a museum worker, he graduated from an agricultural university, so he has a connection with Bolotov along this agricultural line: Bolotov, says Glushkov, is the first Russian agricultural scientist. Under Soviet rule, the local collective farm "Way to Communism" was named after Bolotov. Now there is no collective farm, the land has been sold in shares, someone has resold it, others are processing their share individually.

There is no room for an agronomist in today's staffing table of the estate museum, so the agronomist was appointed as a senior researcher, in general, without any special violations. We won a grant for the "Bolotovsky Garden", where they plan to grow everything that grew here under the old owner, starting with more or less traditional onions, carrots, beets … God willing, the turn will come to pineapples with grapes, melons and watermelons. We received a presidential grant - with this money they put eight shops on the territory.

Comparison of Bolotov with Lomonosov is also justified, or perhaps primarily, by the breadth of interests. One of Bolotov's serious hobbies is park architecture. Let's say he is building Bobrinsky's estate in Bogoroditsk. Five streets fanning out in different directions, in the center there is a palace with five windows, on each street. The first Russian park had floating willow beds with a layer of soil, among which boats were maneuvered. Artificial waterfalls, and near them - philosophical pavilions. Disguised platforms were hiding along the paths: a water devil suddenly jumped out of the water - judging by this and other details, Bolotov was not deprived of a sense of humor.

Photo from the site www.roadplanet.ru
Photo from the site www.roadplanet.ru

Photo from the site www.roadplanet.ru

Fountains, moreover, pretentious, in the form of a goose, for example, in which water poured from its beak, a walking park with streams and paths, a spruce circle and a linden alley was built by Bolotov at his place. The grandson sold the estate, after him five owners changed within a century, the last mistress transferred the land to the monastery and she herself became the abbess in it. In 1921, the monastery was closed, the nuns were convicted of anti-Soviet activities, some were shot. The manor house went to the homeless commune. In 31st, the house and part of the park burned down. Among the few that have survived is a 400-year-old oak tree. In his notes, Bolotov described how lightning struck this very tree.

Here's another example of business intelligence. From the elite peasants, Bolotov created a fighting detachment (about 20 people), in the spring they blocked the dam, in general they did everything where fast and great strength was needed. Something like the current local Emergencies Ministry. Today, the museum staff includes 18 people, not guardsmen at all, but in the summer, when fires raged around, Dvoryaninovo took their own extraordinary measures: they plowed the fields, cut the grass around the estate, and placed additional special large containers with water.

The revival of the estate began with the restoration of the parental garden. Previously, there were 300 trees in it, now 109 new apple trees are growing, the old ones had to be uprooted, there was no benefit from them. In five to seven years, the director assures us, there will be a harvest. While the jam is boiled from berries. Among the services of the museum is the following: “Tea drinking - 30 rubles. (ordering tea by prior arrangement) ". Tea is served with red currant and plum jam. Profit is recorded under “Income from the sale of agricultural products”.

By the way, Bolotov's notes - the real ones - are in four volumes, all well-known editions - in a strong reduction. Most of all, they say, the descriptions of the pictures of the noble life were unlucky. And besides, Bolotov described and left images of apples and pears in central Russia: more than 600 varieties! Two albums with pictures and eight volumes of text! Varvarovka, filaretka … Among others, he names and describes a new variety - Antonov apples.

Today, in the halls of the nobleman's museum, there are figures of Tatyana Nazarenko - a tribute to the memory of Bolotov's tricks: at the entrance to the house, he installed a figurine of a boy who was mistaken for a real one and was often given a coat, and even memories were preserved, they swore at him for his sluggishness. He considered despondency among the first sins, at the wedding of his granddaughter - he was already over 90! - danced all the young.

Nezavisimaya Gazeta, November 12, 2010

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