Table of contents:
- 1. Bowl
- 2. Pumping chamber
- 3. Fountain nozzles and connections
- 4. Fountain pump
- 5. Protective filter
- 6. Fittings for passage through the bottom and walls of the bowl
- 7. Suction pipe
- 8. Gate valve
- 9. Supply pipeline
- 10. Water flow distributor
- 11. Overflow / drain fittings
- 12. Bottom drain with mud filter
- 13. Built-in topping / overflow fittings
- 14. Fittings for fresh water supply
- 15. Overflow pipe
- 16. Overflow piping
- 17. Drain pipe
- 18. Clean water supply line
- 19. Solenoid valve
- 20. Cable entry fitting
- 21. Protective tube for cable
- 22. Submarine terminal box
- 23. Cable protection bus
- 24. Underwater lighting
- 25. Electronic control devices
- 26. Cover grill
Video: Fountain Construction Technology
The building principles of fountain technology are determined by its purpose - to set water in motion. To set the water in motion and create a beautiful, attractive water picture, first of all, you must have enough water. If there is no natural source, such as a pond or lake, then they should be created and replenished with water from the main water supply. Artificial reservoirs, as a rule, are made in the ground and are waterproofed with molding clay, bitumen or polyvinyl chloride film. Fountain bowls are in most cases made of concrete, but they can also be made of plastic or stainless steel. After the issue of a water reservoir has been resolved, it becomes necessary to find a way to set water in motion and to choose the right type of water structure.The movement of water can be barely noticeable - in the form of a stream in a pond, a running stream, bubbling bubbles of a spring, or in the form of a multi-cascade fountain, a transparent water bell, a powerful fountain or a rumbling waterfall.
When the water picture is determined and, accordingly, a nozzle or a combination of nozzles is selected, it is necessary to select a "driving force" - a fountain pump. The simplest solution would be to install a submersible pump in the pool. A slightly more expensive and difficult installation option is to install the centrifugal pump outside the pool "dry". Such a pump is usually installed below the level of the pool bottom in the pumping chamber or basement and is connected to the fountain through the supply and return pipelines.
A fountain structure requires three main elements: a water reservoir, a fountain head and a pump. All other structural elements of the fountain structure serve to decorate the fountain, as well as to simplify management and maintenance.
Small bowls are usually made of plastic, stainless steel, or similar materials, while larger tanks are made of reinforced concrete. In order to avoid serious mistakes, it is necessary to consult with specialists in the construction of fountains during the planning stage. Important criteria are the geometric dimensions of the bowl in relation to the height of the fountain, as well as the depth of the bowl and the water level. All the necessary devices must be placed in a special recess covered with a grid.
2. Pumping chamber
If a conventional pump is installed dry so that water is supplied to it by gravity, then an underground pumping chamber is required. Therefore, the pump must be installed below the water level. Basements and lower rooms of buildings are also suitable for this, but they must have at least a drain into the sewer.
3. Fountain nozzles and connections
Fountain nozzles form a watery picture. Sculptures, decorative water cannons and pipelines are also included in this group of elements. The technical data for water demand and required pressure should be taken into account at the initial planning stage of the piping system and when choosing a pump.
4. Fountain pump
The fountain pump is the driving force and heart of any fountain structure. The pump power depends on the height of the water jets, the characteristics of the nozzles, as well as on the sum of possible losses in pipelines, water distributors and connections.
5. Protective filter
A protective filter, which is installed in the suction pipe, prevents the pump and nozzles from clogging. The filter surface area must be large enough to achieve extended cleaning intervals. In addition, several protection filters can be installed in parallel. There are several standard sizes of protective filters for the suction pipe.
6. Fittings for passage through the bottom and walls of the bowl
Fittings for passage through the bottom and walls of the bowl are used to waterproof the passages of the suction, supply, and other pipelines. They are made of corrosion-resistant materials (stainless steel or tombac) and are hermetically embedded in the concrete with steel flanges. An additional clamping flange is available for bowls coated with foil.
7. Suction pipe
The suction piping allows the dry-installed centrifugal pump to pump water from a fountain bowl or water reservoir. Taking into account that the flow rate should not exceed 2 m / s, the diameter of the pipeline must correspond to the pump capacity.
8. Gate valve
The valve serves to close the suction or supply pipelines, for example, during repair or dismantling of the pump, as well as to regulate flows.
9. Supply pipeline
The supply line directs water from the pump to the fountain nozzles. Taking into account that the flow rate should not exceed 2 m / s, the diameter of the pipeline must correspond to the pump capacity.
10. Water flow distributor
The water flow distributor separates the water flow into several branch flows.
11. Overflow / drain fittings
Overflow / drain fittings allow excess (rain) water to drain from the bowl into the drainage system. When dismantling the overflow fitting, the bowl is emptied.
12. Bottom drain with mud filter
A bottom drain with a dirt filter in combination with a drain valve serves to empty the bowl. It is often used in conjunction with built-in topping / overflow fittings. A spin-on dirt filter prevents large dirt particles from entering the drain line.
13. Built-in topping / overflow fittings
The built-in filling / overflow fitting is hermetically integrated into the vertical wall of the bowl. It is used to drain excess (rain) water into the drain, to fill the bowl and add fresh water, and to install a water level sensor to automatically control the water level.
14. Fittings for fresh water supply
The fresh water fitting is sealed into the bottom of the bowl and serves to fill the bowl and refill with fresh water in accordance with DIN 1988.
15. Overflow pipe
The overflow piping, in combination with the outlet fitting, serves to drain excess water into a drain. In structures installed in public places, it must be at least DN 100.
16. Overflow piping
The overflow pipeline, together with the built-in topping / overflow fittings, is used to drain excess (rain) water from the bowl into the drainage system.
17. Drain pipe
The drain line, in combination with the bottom drain, mud screen and drain valve, serves to drain the water from the bowl when it is emptied. In structures installed in public places, it must be at least DN 100.
18. Clean water supply line
The fresh water supply piping, together with the fresh water supply fitting or the combined integral wall fitting, serves to fill the bowl and refill with fresh water. Replenishment of evaporated water is often carried out automatically by means of electronic automatic water level control.
19. Solenoid valve
The solenoid valve is controlled by an automatic water level control device and, when opened, serves to fill the bowl with clean water.
20. Cable entry fitting
The cable entry fitting at the end of the cable protection tube in the bottom or wall of the bowl serves as a sealed entry for the electrical cable.
21. Protective tube for cable
The cable protection tube in combination with the cable entry fitting protects the cable from mechanical damage and allows easy cable replacement.
22. Submarine terminal box
The underwater terminal box is used to connect and disconnect electrical cables. It allows for easy connection and disconnection of electrical appliances without having to empty the bowl.
23. Cable protection bus
The cable protection busbar allows safe routing of electrical cables in the bowl and protect them from mechanical damage.
24. Underwater lighting
Illumination of fountains and water features in the evening and at night with underwater lights creates an even more impressive sight. Other special effects can be obtained with color filters and color changers.
25. Electronic control devices
Electronic control devices are included in the electrical control cabinet of the fountain structures. It includes all the elements necessary to ensure the electrical safety of the equipment, as well as devices for automatically switching on and off pumps and lights. This often includes an electronic water level monitor.
26. Cover grill
The grill cover protects the underwater working elements from touching and damage. First of all, it protects all electrical equipment from touching and, in accordance with the German VDF 0100 standard, its presence is mandatory for all fountain structures installed in public places.
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