A Functional Approach To Landscape Design

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A Functional Approach To Landscape Design
A Functional Approach To Landscape Design
Video: A Functional Approach To Landscape Design
Video: Landscape Design - Site Planning - Part 1 2023, February
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The term "functionality has firmly entered our everyday life and implies not only aesthetics, beauty, taste, but also the usefulness and convenience of certain components of human life. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the functional component of all areas of human life. We are talking about functional furniture in the design interiors, functional cars that combine environmental friendliness and convenience, functional nutrition and functional products for a healthy lifestyle and the prevention of various diseases.

Landscaping of the territory can also include a functional component. In this case, functionality is a rather broad concept, and is determined by the goal and objectives of the projected landscape area. Two areas should immediately be divided - landscapes for public use (territories of schools and colleges, public parks and squares, etc.) and private plots intended for a specific family and its needs.

Let's try to consider the tasks of each of these projects. When decorating the territory of educational institutions, landscaping can carry not only "decoration", but also an educational function. For example, in construction, landscape or architecture colleges, specialized universities, different parts of the territory can represent different directions of landscape design. In addition, it can be a collection of plant species and their cultivars used in the design of the territory. These can be areas where students can get acquainted with different groups of useful plants (decorative, medicinal, vegetable, fruit). On the other hand, these may be the diploma works of the students themselves, examples of which can be seen at the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev. Moreover, such landings are not something immutable.They develop and change depending on fashion trends, expanding the range of plants.

Vegetable plot of the University of Forest in Brno
Vegetable plot of the University of Forest in Brno

Vegetable plot of the University of Forest in Brno

Vegetable plot of the University of Forest in Brno
Vegetable plot of the University of Forest in Brno

Vegetable plot of the University of Forest in Brno

Collections of vegetable and gingerbread crops and medicinal plants can be organized in a very original way. An example of such a solution is the experimental site and arboretum of the Forest University in Brno (Czech Republic). Various crops are planted in the composition of vegetable crops in different seasons, for example, salads of all shapes and shades are replaced by basil, which can again be replaced with salads with the onset of cool weather and a short day. Thematic collections of medicinal and aromatic plants are present in almost all botanical institutions.

Aromatic plants in the Brno Arboretum
Aromatic plants in the Brno Arboretum

Aromatic plants in the Brno Arboretum

Cereals of the University of the Forest in Brno
Cereals of the University of the Forest in Brno

Cereals of the University of the Forest in Brno

Specialized expositions in botanical gardens also have an educational function when plants are selected according to one or another principle. In domestic botanical gardens, they are most often limited by the principle of geographical origin and collections of cultivars of certain species. In many European botanical gardens, there are also systematic areas where the most typical or interesting representatives of various families are collected. It is convenient to conduct classes on them in botany, first of all - the taxonomy of plants, everything is very clear: life forms, the structure of a flower, a fruit. Examples of such sites are in Dahlem (Berlin) and the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam.

Systematic plot in Dahlem
Systematic plot in Dahlem

Systematic plot in Dahlem

Medicinal plants in Dahlem
Medicinal plants in Dahlem

Medicinal plants in Dahlem

Plot of cereals in the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam
Plot of cereals in the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam

Plot of cereals in the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam

Plot of medicinal plants in the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam
Plot of medicinal plants in the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam

Plot of medicinal plants in the Botanical Garden of the University of Potsdam

A charming medieval-style pharmaceutical garden created by students and teachers of the Brno Forest University in Valtice Castle.

Medicinal plants in the Brno Arboretum
Medicinal plants in the Brno Arboretum

Medicinal plants in the Brno Arboretum

When creating functional landings in small private areas, the designer is given a slightly different "functional" task, I would even say, purely utilitarian. The main goal is to obtain from a relatively small area small quantities of raw materials of certain types of plants, while being absolutely environmentally friendly. These can be aromatic plants for teas and culinary preferences of the owners, medicinal plants for the treatment of the family, vegetables and fruit crops that the site owners would like to see on their table. Here, the assortment to a greater extent than in the previous case is determined by the preferences, and sometimes by the whims of the customer. That is, there is more of a subjective approach to the benefits, which is different in each case.

Apothecary garden in Hamburg
Apothecary garden in Hamburg

Apothecary garden in Hamburg

Apothecary garden in Hamburg
Apothecary garden in Hamburg

Apothecary garden in Hamburg

Apothecary garden in Hamburg
Apothecary garden in Hamburg

Apothecary garden in Hamburg

Where should you start in this case?

Determine the direction of application of the products of the created landscape masterpiece - in other words, with what we will do with the fruits of labor - to be treated, to eat or drink tea. Choose the largest possible list of plants with the necessary action in order to make a narrower choice in the future, based on purely aesthetic preferences and culture biology. Unfortunately, not everything grows in our climate. Choose plants that are in harmony with each other, and combined with different flowering periods. At this stage, already existing landings should be taken into account. As a rule, they come to functionality when a lot of everything is planted on the site and you want to change and systematize something. That is, the planted plants should not only be in harmony with each other, but also fit into the existing landscape.Place plants in the selected area, taking into account the timing of flowering and the needs of each individual species - most likely, some plant species will need more than others.

Do not forget about the possible use of seemingly purely ornamental plants in a slightly different capacity. For example, such recognized ornamental plants as rose, nasturtium, daisy, leather skumpia, marigolds, monarda, Kuril tea, lilacs are excellent medicinal plants and help with very common ailments such as gout or atherosclerosis.

In recent years, a new trend in phytodesign has emerged - the use of phytoncidal plants for landscaping interiors. The task of such plant modules, which have the ability to release biologically active volatile substances and absorb harmful ones (formaldehyde and toluene, the source of which can be new furniture, carpets, paint) is:

cleaning the atmosphere of the room from harmful gases and dust;

  • reducing the number of harmful microorganisms;
  • ionization and humidification of indoor air;
  • sound absorption;
  • air enrichment with biogenic substances that have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the human body;
  • creating an aesthetically pleasing and comfortable environment.

For example, banal, at first glance, chlorophytum or sansevier, popularly called "pike tail", are phytoncidal plants that cleanse the air of microorganisms, accumulate carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, weaken the effect of nitrogen oxides, and assimilate other harmful gases. There are still a lot of white spots in this direction, but it is developing dynamically, more and more details are being clarified about the benefits of certain indoor plants.

Naturally, this article only briefly discusses some of the problems of functionality in landscape construction. But this direction will certainly develop - it is natural for a person to turn everything to his advantage, even beauty. Or maybe it’s useful to wrap it in a nice package?.. Time will tell.

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From the GreenInfo.ru editor:

Many beautiful and functional sites for various purposes can be seen in the English Gardens owned by the Royal Horticultural Society Foundation. You can see an example of an ornamental vegetable garden complemented by fragrant plants in our report on Queens Gardens. The concept of an aromatic garden is usually somewhat vague, because very often aromatic plants predominate in numerous flower beds. Traditionally, in addition to garden flowers, fragrant and healthy thyme, lavender, sage, catnip, wormwood, artichokes, katrana, angelica, fennel are used. But here is a sample of a regular aromatic garden at Wilton House Garden, for which only three species of plants were taken - climbing honeysuckle, lavender and boxwood. As you can see, such a garden can even become a ceremonial one, decorating the facade of the house.

Wilton house garden
Wilton house garden

Wilton house garden

Wilton house garden
Wilton house garden

Wilton house garden

A vegetable garden, which is at the same time decorative, is found in almost every English garden. Usually it is located in a designated area or in the so-called Walled Garden, surrounded by walls. Along the walls here you can often see palmettes from fruit plants - apple trees, pears, sometimes even cherries, exotic figs, which grows well in English gardens. The same trees sometimes surround the frames of fancy arbors. The vegetable beds are more like flower beds, outlined with boxwood borders. Crops are ornamentally arranged according to the shape and color of the foliage, even if planted in even rows. As a rule, ordinary poles installed by an arc or obelisk are used as supports for peas and beans. And the desire to get away from flat rectangular beds is always obvious, to divide the garden into separate zones, to make it voluminous,decorative and interesting. And its purpose is not only utilitarian - you can almost always find benches in it for rest.

Kilver court garden
Kilver court garden

Kilver court garden

Kilver court garden
Kilver court garden

Kilver court garden

Heale garden
Heale garden

Heale garden

Heale garden
Heale garden

Heale garden

Heale garden
Heale garden

Heale garden

Forde abbey garden
Forde abbey garden

Forde abbey garden

Forde abbey garden
Forde abbey garden

Forde abbey garden

Forde abbey garden
Forde abbey garden

Forde abbey garden

And here is an example of a kindergarten. It is located in Queens Gardens and is intended for schoolchildren and visits by parents with children. A significant part of a rather large territory is occupied by the "arena", around which a whole class can be accommodated on the stones during classes. To teach the skills of plant propagation, there is a small greenhouse, a set of various pots and containers. Small demonstration gardens are divided according to a systematic basis - areas of Mediterranean plants, bamboos, useful plants, a series of modular reservoirs with a variety of aquatic vegetation are highlighted. The children get acquainted not only with flora, but also with aquatic fauna - frogs, newts, fish, as well as small animals and insects living in the shade of a large oak tree. On one of the sites, there is a range of different composting machines,here the techniques of organic farming are mastered. The creators have not forgotten about aesthetics, the whole kindergarten is organized simply, but intricately. The entrance on the sides is decorated with beautiful metal insects, another arch-entrance is made of driftwood in the style of the entire large garden of Queens Gardens. About a thousand schoolchildren are introduced to gardening here every year.

Furzey Gardens children's learning garden plan
Furzey Gardens children's learning garden plan

Furzey Gardens children's learning garden plan

One of the entrances to the kindergarten
One of the entrances to the kindergarten

One of the entrances to the kindergarten

Image
Image

"Arena" for training

Snag arch
Snag arch

Snag arch

Educational greenhouses
Educational greenhouses

Educational greenhouses

Furzey gardens
Furzey gardens

Furzey gardens

Decorative elements at the entrance
Decorative elements at the entrance

Decorative elements at the entrance

Decorative elements at the entrance
Decorative elements at the entrance

Decorative elements at the entrance

Photo: Rita Brilliantova

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