Many manor complexes are used today for tourist, museum and other purposes. On the basis of these territories, cultural, educational and ecological centers are being created. One of such centers after restoration measures can be a garden and park facility in the village. Polchaninovka of the Tatishchevsky district of the Saratov region is an example of landscaping of the German Volga estate.
The village is located “47 versts from Saratov along the Petrovsky tract” . The terrain is surrounded on three sides by deep and wide depressions, while the settlement itself is located on the eastern slope of the Round Mountain, overgrown with a birch-aspen forest. There are many springs with cold spring water feeding the Kolyshli, Idolga and Sokur rivers, as well as a system of ponds. The soil is black earth.
The last owner of these picturesque places was A.N. Minkh is a famous Saratov ethnographer, historian, ethnographer, who at that time served as a world mediator in the Atkarsk district of the Saratov province. He belonged to the old Hanoverian noble family Minchow (Munchow). His father, Nikolai Andreevich Minkh, a military man, a nobleman, whose ancestor in 1786 was invited by Catherine II to Russia to serve as a doctor of medicine. Mother, Varvara Borisovna Blank, is the daughter of the Tambov landowner B.K. Blank.
Alexander Nikolaevich bought the estate in Polchaninovka in the fall of 1873. A stone blue house with a green roof, a mezzanine with cast-iron balconies stood on a hill opposite the church. The approach to it was carried out along a shady linden alley "45 fathoms in length", in front of the balcony there was a quadrangular lawn with flower beds, surrounded by three linden alleys . Further - “a young park of firs, thuja, larches and pines scattered on the lawn; willows and lindens surrounded a small pond with a birch bridge thrown over the ditch. A wooden fence lined with acacia separates the estate from the square, and a row of birches - from the alley”.
Polchaninovsky pond. Figure: A.N. Mincha
A.N. Minh carried out a number of measures to reconstruct the manor house and plan a park with an area of about 8 hectares, which smoothly turned into a forest. According to his own drawings, he arranged gazebos, a bath, human and transformed the park space. The building of the estate seems to "jump out" of the forest in order to immediately be half hidden in a dense linden curtain. The main point of view was the nice-looking gazebo, which stood on a small elevation in front of the house, above the pond itself. It attracted attention with its variegated decoration, from here, far and near pictures were opened "for the whole pond, occupying a space of more than 1 tithe (1 dess. 800 sq. Sazh.)". In "12 acres, an orchard behind it, planted at the entrance with a curtain of pine trees, and then on three sides - an alley of old maples, lindens, pines" for a whole mile ", in the middle there was an alley of lilacs, in the thick of greenery peeped out a white church,and along the linden corridor and the house itself”.
Gazebo in the park Fig. A.N. Mincha
Alexander Nikolaevich depicted the view from the balcony of the building in his drawing in the notes about the village. Polchaninovka. The gazebo was a favorite resting place for the owners, where they "had tea" in the evenings. On the other side of the lower pond there was an orchard, and from under the limes, hazel, and birches hanging over the water mirror a semicircular toe-“saucer” - a corner popular with the owners of the estate, protruded. It was lined with fragrant petunia, strewn with bright pink sand, and shaded by tall old birches, under which stood two cast-iron benches. Another was just below the pavilion, not far from the pond. From there, through the branches of silvery poplars and willows, the water surface was fragmentarily visible.
Slightly above the large pond was a smaller one, filled with forest springs, one of which, near the reservoir itself, was trimmed with a log house and a canopy, the water in it was "excellent for drinking and tea" . Here, in 1876, a small elegant plank bathhouse was arranged, painted with blue and white stripes.
It is interesting that “when creating the park, A.N. Minh gave preference to conifers as more decorative. Along with the long-used species, he experimented with new, previously unknown in the Saratov province: folded thuja, Siberian cedar, which survived until the 60s. XX century, Canadian spruce”.
Polchaninovskaya estate A.N. Minha was the intellectual center of the entire district . Today, despite the fact that since the beginning of the 90s of the twentieth century. this complex is registered with the state in the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, the building of the estate continues to collapse and is subject to urgent restoration. All other park buildings and small architectural forms turned into ruins in the 70s of the last century. True, in the 80s, the ruins of the bathhouse were still preserved. Open spaces (valleys, glades, lawns, etc.) are used by the local population for vegetable gardens and for driving livestock. Both ponds and the channel connecting them are overgrown. Only a few landscape paintings, once created, remain. The only specimen of a century-old cedar in the Saratov region (Siberian cedar pine), planted by A.N. Minkhom, at the end of the twentieth century. Was destroyed.
The oldest spruce trees in the region have survived in the Polchaninovsky park - European, or common, and prickly (about 30 specimens, height 22 m, trunk diameter 80–90 cm), as well as Siberian larch (5 specimens, 24 m, 40–70 cm), Scots pine (10 specimens, 20 m, 40–50 cm), white poplar (10 specimens, 20 m, 100–150 cm) . All these patriarch trees add charm and mystery to the Polchaninovsky park.
The regular composition, clearly expressed on the territory adjacent to the main facade of the manor house, is replaced by landscape composition towards the large pond. On its banks, sometimes at the very water, there are picturesque paths from which you can see the landscapes of the pond, now appearing from an unexpected angle, now disappearing from the field of view. Many vantage points are obscured by young growth, however, the plan of the park's creator is clear even now.
An important role in the landscapes is played by the bends of the coastline: a walk along it allows you to consistently survey the area of the reservoir, which increases interest in the route . The layout of the park is well aligned with the uneven terrain, as evidenced by the smooth tracing of the roads and the absence of steep ascents and descents.
As a result of our many years of research, the boundaries of the garden and park object, viewpoints, areas of the picturesque landscape, etc. were established. The ecological situation in the village. Polchaninovka is within normal limits. However, near the dirt roads, plantings accumulate a large amount of dust, which causes them significant harm.
We have also identified the main compositional methods for organizing this estate complex . One of them is the compact inclusion of groups of fruit trees (they were the focus of space) into the ornamental park and the principle of fragmentation, when the species of the fruit garden are good
viewed from the park.
Polchaninovka recovery plan
Based on the research carried out, we made the following recommendations for the restoration of the garden and park complex.
Create a buffer and sanitary-hygienic zone where it is necessary to place dust-proof plantings: squat elm (70%), lanceolate ash (20%), common lilac (10%). To reconstruct a number of garden and park fragments, use an assortment of resistant species - lanceolate ash, drooping birch, pedunculate oak, common lilac, and Scots pine as accents in groups. To include in the flower assortment of petunias of different varieties (65%), as the most environmentally sustainable and traditional flowers for landscaping German estates, widely used in the time of A.N. Mincha. Use methods of restoration (for areas with a known planning structure and a stable dendrological composition during the ownership of the estate by A.N. Minkh) and reconstruction (for areas with less preserved planning structure and flora).To recreate the "economic garden" and use it to organize the production of apple products and their sale. Carry out thinning, cutting of damaged stands, undergrowth, etc.
We have created a project for the restoration of the garden and park complex of A.N. Mincha, where all the above recommendations are taken into account. Appropriate measures will enhance the historical, cultural, memorial and aesthetic value of the complex, increase its landscape and scientific significance.
1. Notes and notes by A. N. Minha // GASO, F. 407. Op. 2. Unit xp. 739, L. 772, D. 757, D. 745, D. 739, D. 742.
2. Specially protected areas of the Saratov region. Tatishchevsky district. Polchaninovsky Manor Park. - [http://ccrussia.org/ polchaninovskiy_priusadebnyy_park.html].
3. Milovidova I.B. Natural parks are monuments of nature, history and culture. // Noble estates of the Saratov province: Materials of the second Bogolyubov readings / I.B. Milovidova - Saratov: Publishing house "Areal", 1998. - pp. 62–63.
4. Sokolskaya OB "Green architecture" of the Saratov Volga region / O.B. Sokolskaya. - Saratov, 1993. S. 45–49.
5. Sokolskaya O.B. Through the shadows of times (Garden and park heritage of the Volga Upland: evolution, current state and application) / O.B. Sokolskaya. - Saratov: IC "RATA", 2010. - pp. 296–302.
"Floriculture" magazine, No. 2, 2012