"Lilac Garden" In Moscow: Condition Assessment And Varietal Compliance

Table of contents:

"Lilac Garden" In Moscow: Condition Assessment And Varietal Compliance
"Lilac Garden" In Moscow: Condition Assessment And Varietal Compliance

Video: "Lilac Garden" In Moscow: Condition Assessment And Varietal Compliance

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Lilac garden in Moscow 2023, January
Anonim
Lilac garden
Lilac garden

Lilac garden

Common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) is widely represented in Moscow landscaping. This, of course, is due to the fact that it is perfectly suited for urban conditions in the temperate zone. Common lilac is a large shrub, undemanding to soil fertility, capable of withstanding frost, drought and atmospheric pollution. Moreover, it has the highest decorative effect during the flowering period - from mid-May to mid-June. However, for Moscow, lilacs also represent a special, cultural and historical value. It was in Moscow that the outstanding lilac breeder Leonid Alekseevich Kolesnikov (1894-1968) lived and created new varieties. As a result of his large-scale activity, many lilac bushes were planted in the city, both varieties and numerous seedlings, which Kolesnikov did not destroy.and distributed it to amateurs and used it for new crosses. Thus, among the old plantings in Moscow, there may be especially valuable plants of the Kolesnikov varieties, which are considered lost or are in collections in single copies. In this regard, monitoring of such plantings is becoming increasingly important.

Lilac garden
Lilac garden

Lilac garden

Lilac garden
Lilac garden

Lilac garden

The most representative collection of lilacs among public gardens and parks in Moscow is "Lilac Garden", formed in 1975 on the basis of the nursery "Kaloshino", founded by L.A. Kolesnikov in 1954. This garden is located in the east of Moscow at the address: Shchelkovskoe highway, vl. 8-12. Currently, it is a public landscaping facility owned by Moszelenkhoz. The territory of the Garden with an area of ​​7 hectares is occupied by a lawn covering with a system of unpaved, tiled and asphalt paths. The landscaping includes flower beds and a small number of tree species, located mainly along the periphery of the site. Lilacs in the "Lilac Garden", of course, play a special role, for a more complete understanding of which historical information is needed.

Lilac garden
Lilac garden

Lilac garden

The first lilac plants on this territory were planted in 1954 with the direct participation of L.A. Kolesnikov, who at that time took over the position of technical director of the Kaloshin nursery of the Moscow City Trust of Greenhouses and Nurseries. These were adult bushes - mother plants of varietal lilacs and hybrid seedlings, as well as oculants and stock from the famous L.A. Kolesnikov in Bolshoy Peschaniy Lane (Sokol metro area), which he donated to the state back in 1952, immediately after he was awarded the Stalin Prize "for developing a large number of new varieties of lilac." At the same time, the Government and the Executive Committee of the Moscow Council decided to create an experimental breeding nursery in Kaloshino. 11 hectares of land were allotted for the lilac nursery - an uncultivated wasteland.More than 2000 lilac bushes were transported from the garden on Sokol to Kaloshino. In 1956, Kolesnikov was transferred to the position of director of the nursery. From his surviving memorandum, one can get an idea of ​​the difficulties in the activity of this nursery, despite which he continued breeding work and activities to popularize new varieties of lilacs. In 1962, Kolesnikov was retired, and he again works with lilacs in his old plot.

Lilac garden
Lilac garden

Lilac garden

Meanwhile, both gardens - both on Sokol and in Kaloshino, were under threat of destruction in connection with the decision to start construction of residential buildings on their territory. Omitting the tragic details here, I will only say that all the remaining lilacs from the garden on Sokol, at the request of Kolesnikov, in 1966 were moved to the Shchelkovskoe highway, but at an inappropriate time and with violations of agricultural rules. As a result, only 80 bushes have taken root in the new place, some of which have survived to this day, and some have died. [1] As stated on the information board at the entrance to the Garden, "the original number of varieties - 32".

Soon the nursery "Kaloshino", where all the planned work had not yet been completed, was included in the nearest Pervomaisky state farm of decorative crops as an "experimental nursery", and then transformed into a public gardening object, which still exists today.

During the improvement of the territory of the "Lilac Garden", a redevelopment of the site was carried out, as a result of which additional roads were laid through the quarters planted with lilacs. Plants found on the site of the roads under construction were moved in groups to open areas of the Garden, occupied by a lawn. The transplantation scheme was not made, and therefore the plants in the groups are not tied to the plan by varieties, but there is only a general list. Thus, the collection of lilac cultivars in the "Lilac Garden" cannot be recognized as a full-fledged collection, despite the fact that it is here that the original specimens of lilacs from L.A. Kolesnikov.

Lilac garden
Lilac garden

Lilac garden

Inventory results

The previous inventory of lilac plantings in the "Lilac Garden" on the Shchelkovskoye highway was made in 1984. In 2011, as part of her graduation work in the Garden, a 6th year student of the Faculty of Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the RSAU-Moscow Agricultural Academy named after V.I. K.A. Timiryazeva A.B. Dudnikov. Her task was to make an inventory of common lilacs at the "Lilac Garden" facility with drawing up an inventory plan, assess the state of cultivars and identify the most recognizable varieties. The inventory was carried out on the basis of the approved situational plan (scale 1: 2000) and the inventory plan of the territory of 2006 (scale 1: 500), taken at the enterprise serving this facility (Gorzelenkhoz No. 5).

An inventory plan was drawn up with the application of all examined lilac plants with their numbers. For the convenience of carrying out the work, A.B. Dudnikova divided all the plantings of common lilac into groups, which were numbered and marked on the inventory plan. Within the groups, all specimens of lilacs were numbered. For the correct location of the groups and each lilac plant on the plan, they were tied to the terrain (asphalt paths, fence, etc.).

From the surviving working journal of L.A. Kolesnikov, it is clear that initially in this territory he laid 16 rows, in which there were 74 seats. But now in ordinary landings there are the same 16 rows, in which there are only 38 seats. The results of the inventory showed that since 1984 166 lilac plants have died in the row planting. As of May 2011, 872 specimens of lilacs are presented in the Lilac Garden, of which 248 are located in ordinary plantings, 616 in group and 8 in singles.

In 2011, on May 18, a commission consisting of I.B. Okuneva, curator of the lilac collection of the GBS RAS, T.V. Polyakova, Vice-President of the International Lilac Society for Russia and Asia and representatives of the "Lilac" section of the "Flower Growers of Moscow" club headed by its chairman T.A. Veremyeva examined the Lilac Garden object to assess the varietal conformity and condition of lilac plants.

Definition of varieties

The lilacs of the Lilac Garden collection can be roughly divided into 4 groups:

1. foreign varieties that L.A. Kolesnikov used in crosses;

2. registered varieties bred by Kolesnikov;

3. promising seedlings and seedlings used for crossing;

4. undefined cultivars (no number).

Based on the comparison of the new inventory plan with entries from the journal L.A. Kolesnikov, it was found that today in the Garden there should be 23 varieties of L.A. Kolesnikov and 20 varieties of foreign selection, as well as hybrid seedlings - 99 pcs. and unspecified varieties (no number) - 104 pcs.

It should be noted that it is possible to reliably identify a variety of lilacs only in cases where it has bright unique features, for example, a border along the edge of the petal in the Dzhambul variety, or their complex, such as lilac-pink double flowers with a specific bend of petals in combination with purple -brown color of the bark of annual increments in the variety Olympiada Kolesnikova. Having a list of varieties from which to choose, and a planting scheme, one can confidently assert whether the plant corresponds to the variety under which it is listed or not. Although even under such conditions, difficulties are possible. In this case, the task was complicated by the fact that the plantings contain a significant number of seedlings that do not have a description and exist in a single copy. Besides,Kolesnikov did not keep strict records in his breeding work and did not leave systematic records. Only a few scattered leaves, written in pencil, have survived, on which you can find descriptions of some varieties, their numbers or names. In addition, most of the archive has been irretrievably lost.

Lilac Hydrangea
Lilac Hydrangea

Lilac Hydrangea

As a result of the work of the commission, 13 varieties were reliably identified.

In row landings: Belle de Nancy, Furst Bulow, Buffon, Marshal Zhukov, Moscow Sky, Valentina Grizodubova, Kolkhoznitsa, K.A. Timiryazev, Hortense, Olympiada Kolesnikova, Beauty of Moscow. The rest of the varieties require more detailed examination and refinement.

  • In group plantings, the identification of varieties is very difficult, due to the fact that there are many hybrid seedlings among cultivars. Only two well-recognized varieties were identified in them: Charles Joly; Captain Gastello.
  • In single plantings, one cultivar is defined - Buffon.
  • Presumably (based on the color of the corolla) a seedling called Cream was also identified.

L.A. varieties Kolesnikova The Beauty of Moscow, Olympiada Kolesnikova, Sky of Moscow and Hortense are widespread enough and their fate is currently not a cause for concern. Varieties Marshal Zhukov, K.A. Timiryazev and Kolkhoznitsa are of particular value, since either they are absent in the collections, or under this name there are cultivars that do not correspond to the description, which were mistakenly propagated and distributed.

Some of the plants could not be identified as their buds had not yet opened at the time of the survey. This work is planned to be continued.

Plant condition

All lilac plants were assessed by condition categories in accordance with the Methodology for conducting an inventory of green spaces. To indicate the condition of each instance, the criteria for assessing the condition by points from 0 to 6 were used:

0 - good condition (no signs of weakening);

1 - satisfactory (weakened);

2 - satisfactory (strongly weakened, in the crown from 25% to 50% of dry branches);

3 - unsatisfactory (strongly weakened, in the crown from 50% to 75% of dry branches);

4 - unsatisfactory (drying out);

5 - unsatisfactory (dead wood of the current year);

6 - unsatisfactory (dead wood of previous years).

Old lilac bushes in a row planting
Old lilac bushes in a row planting

Old lilac bushes in a row planting

Of the total number of lilacs (872), only 1% is in good condition. 17% of lilacs received a satisfactory mark (1 point). Most of the lilac bushes are rated at 2 (38%) and 3 (33%) points, that is, in fact, the plants are in an unsatisfactory condition, to a greater or lesser extent weakened, they have damaged trunks, in the crowns from 25% to 75% dry branches. 9% of lilac plants are on the verge of death (4 points - drying out). Plants, whose condition is assessed as satisfactory, still grow normally, but no longer have a high decorative value, are partially affected by diseases, and have mechanical damage.

The exact age of the plants is unknown; in the oldest, by external signs, it can be determined at about 80-100 years, which is consistent with archival data. Judging by the appearance of plants, since the cessation of L.A. Kolesnikov, i.e. for about 50 years, there was no special care for lilac bushes. Garden maintenance consisted mainly of mowing lawns, arranging and maintaining flower beds and paths, and pruning was reduced to sanitary, probably carried out as needed, when broken and dried branches and trunks were removed, which can be seen when inspecting the plants. Without rejuvenating and supportive pruning that stimulates the formation of new growths from the base of the bush, the gradual replacement of aging stems with young ones does not occur, and the existing old stems are already close to dying off [2, 3]. Unfortunately,for such old bushes, rejuvenation by pruning is dangerous, and it remains only to count on the development of spinning shoots from dormant buds that can at least partially restore the plants.

Typical pruning in
Typical pruning in

Typical Pruning in Lilac Garden

Escape from a sleeping bud on the trunk of an old lilac
Escape from a sleeping bud on the trunk of an old lilac

Escape from a sleeping bud on the trunk of an old lilac

This situation is aggravated by the fact that the visitors of the Garden use the lilac trunks that naturally bent over because of old age for sitting, which increases the load on the plants and leads to mechanical damage to the trunks. On the territory of the "Lilac Garden" with an area of ​​7 hectares there are only 9 benches and 18 urns, which does not correspond to the number of visitors, especially numerous during the lilac bloom.

Visitors to the Garden sit on lilac trunks
Visitors to the Garden sit on lilac trunks

Visitors to the Garden sit on lilac trunks

No less, and perhaps more dangerous, is the barbaric breaking off of inflorescences by visitors, from which lilacs in Moscow suffer everywhere. Such breakages interfere with the normal development of the crown and lead to ugly branching disorders and the appearance of stem defects. Since the largest inflorescences are located in the upper part of the bush, attempts to get them almost always end in breaking off large branches and even whole trunks.

Lilac disfigured by breaking
Lilac disfigured by breaking

Lilac disfigured by breaking

Lilac disfigured by breaking
Lilac disfigured by breaking

Lilac disfigured by breaking

Lilac break marks
Lilac break marks

Lilac break marks

Lilac break marks
Lilac break marks

Lilac break marks

Damage to the lilac trunk due to breaking off
Damage to the lilac trunk due to breaking off

Damage to the lilac trunk due to breaking off

Damage to the lilac trunk due to breaking off
Damage to the lilac trunk due to breaking off

Damage to the lilac trunk due to breaking off

In group plantings, there are specimens of lilacs of a younger age. Among them there are many grafted plants with lost rootstock shoots that have reached a flowering state. If the rootstock trunks are not removed in the coming years, it will drown out the cultivated graft. Such pruning should be carried out by or under the supervision of qualified personnel. To carry out pruning, the permission of the company servicing the object is required.

Grafted lilac with rootstock sprout
Grafted lilac with rootstock sprout

Grafted lilac with rootstock sprout

The left stem is the rootstock growth, the right stem is the cultivated graft
The left stem is the rootstock growth, the right stem is the cultivated graft

The left stem is the rootstock growth, the right stem is the cultivated graft

Thus, based on the results of the survey of the Lilac Garden object, it can be concluded that in order to preserve varietal lilac plants planted by L.A. Kolesnikov, it is necessary to take measures to protect the bushes from damage by visitors to the Garden and provide qualified care for the lilacs. Installing additional benches and trash bins can also help reduce anthropogenic pressure on plants of historical value.

Literature

1. Polyakova T. History of Russian lilac. In memory of Kolesnikov - M., "Penta"; 2010.200 s.

2. Hump V.K. Rejuvenation of plants of common lilac varieties. // Biological and ecological features of introduced plants, 1985, - p. 39-43.

3. Okuneva I.B. Lilac. M.: "Kladez-Buks", 2006.

Photo by the author

Popular by topic