Table of contents:
- White garden and black garden
- Space play
- Water in the landscape
- Landscaping techniques
- Serial gardens
Parisians are very fond of holidays and at the end of September they celebrate the Festival of the Gardens, which they love, cherish and cherish. The capital's development program plans to combine the Seine embankments into a common ensemble stretching from Bercy to Andre Citroen Park. I would like to tell you more about the amazing André Citroën Park, which is the implementation of one of the most ambitious projects in Paris in the 20th century.
Park André Citroën is part of a redeveloped area of new buildings on the banks of the Seine in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, where the Citroën car factory was located.
The concept of the park is a modern interpretation of four design elements: Architecture, Art, Nature and Movement. In different parts of the park, they are combined in pairs: Nature and Movement refer to the “living world”, conditionally influencing Architecture and Art, which united the “work of architects and landscape painters”.
The park covers an area of 14 hectares and opens in the west, from the left bank of the river, a wide third perspective on the Seine, completing the previously opened Parisian perspectives of the Esplanade of Invalides and Champs de Mars.
White garden and black garden
On both sides of the main entrance, there are two square-shaped gardens - "Black and White", which are a continuation of the park to the rue Saint-Charles and harmoniously fit into the layout of the new quarter. Gilles Clement refers them to the "Gardens of Art", as they are widely used inert materials and rare plants. As conceived by the architects, these gardens, symbolizing "light and shadow", are intended to oppose each other in color and space.
The White Garden covers an area of 1 hectare and is a spacious, constantly open playground. There is little greenery in the garden, but stone and inert materials are widely used.
On the other hand, the “Black Garden” of 2 hectares is planted with dense vegetation of dark green color. The ephedra are trimmed in such a way that they resemble Japanese dwarf trees that have grown to gigantic proportions. In this garden, plants are planted with crimson, crimson, dark burgundy and deep purple flowers, giving a feeling of "black" color.
For example, in spring black tulips bloom under the pines. This garden is walled and maze-like, with beautiful steps leading to a small square-shaped central square decorated with black marble. The moving stream of space creates an expressive effect in this garden: it moves slowly along narrow passages, flowing around groups of plants, then fills open areas or rushes down the stairs.
André Citroën Park is a volumetric-spatial composition consisting of many landscapes that unfold from certain vantage points or when moving along a given “visual route”. One of them is a diagonal running from south to north to the Seine, indicated by a footpath. It crosses the parterre, which is the compositional center of the park. It can be used by busy Parisians who need to take the shortest route to the Seine River. We suggest taking a leisurely stroll through the park, admiring the creation of French architects.
In the André Citroën park, the principle of alternating open and closed spaces is laid. Their quantitative ratio determines the volumetric-spatial structure of any garden. In parks of a regular style, parterres and lawns alternate with voluminous bosquets, open lawns and reservoirs in landscaped gardens - with green massifs of free outlines.
The creators of the André Citroën park consider it to be one of a kind: “neither English - nor French”, since in it open and closed spaces subtly flow into each other.
Water in the landscape
Due to the fact that the park is located on the Seine, water has become one of the dominant elements in it. It symbolizes the Movement and occupies a total area of 1 hectare in the park. The Seine is the source of many fountains and reservoirs throughout the park. Water spreads widely in the Grand Canal, surrounds the central parterre, turns into cascades and rushing streams that go around the Serial Gardens in rows.
Numerous fountains adorn the Black Garden, and the colonnade in the center of the large greenhouses is called the water peristyle. There is a wonderful recreation area in the park: an “acoustic garden”. It is bounded on two sides by high concrete walls, and the other two sides are represented by slopes along which water flows and splashes, creating the effect of being near a waterfall or by the sea. It clearly shows the close connection between the elements of Architecture and Movement. By creating bosquets or plant peristyle from clipped magnolias, architects manipulated their shape, height and other parameters, just as when planning non-living elements of garden design.
Walking around André Citroën, you can learn the classic techniques of park construction. Linear perspective reflects the visual change of objects as they move away from the observer: vertical lines decrease in size, and parallel lines converge on the horizon line. Therefore, it is possible to "increase the depth of space" by creating an artificial perspective from plants, which decrease in size as they move away from the viewer.
This technique has been known for a long time, and can be used even in summer cottages. To create the illusion of the depth of space, oriental park builders reduced the size of the paving slabs or changed the texture of their surface - from rough to smooth, polished, which visually blurs the contours of the path.
The southwestern part of the park reflects the concept of Alain Provost, who created the "Garden of Metamorphoses", which demonstrates the interconnection of opposing elements: Nature and Architecture. Metallic, futuristic sculptures follow the outline of tree crowns, trimmed borders have the parameters of concrete fences, and the shape of magnolia crowns echoes the outlines created by water jets of fountains.
The northeastern part of the park reproduces the ecological and philosophical concept of J. Clement, who placed the "Garden in Motion" and "Serial Gardens" here.
"Garden in motion" is a paradise for "weeds" and a Russian tourist will be reminded of a vacant lot cleared of garbage on the outskirts of the city. From a French point of view, this garden represents the highest level of design complexity, since the gardener's task is to solve the difficult question of the survival or death of a particular plant species growing in these wild thickets. And the main principle here is “do no harm”, that is, the intervention of gardeners is limited to a minimum, and plants can develop absolutely freely, disappear and reappear.
J. Clement selected plants to demonstrate the process of evolution, and the visitor can observe changes in vegetation over time. Here flowers grow typical of fallow lands: dandelions, poppies, cornflowers, clover and cereals. Only bamboos, ferns and tender mosses have been artificially planted. Plants are in constant motion through time and space. In time, because flowering can occur at any time of the year, but in space, because the flowers that you once saw in some place will never be found there again.
The garden in motion occupies a large area, contrasting with the modern functional buildings surrounding it, it makes an amazing impression. In this part of the park, you can enjoy nature while in the urban space, which is especially important for Parisians. Here we see the combination of the elements of Nature and Movement, and according to the philosophical concept of J. Clement, this garden is dedicated to Saturday - the day of rest.
The “serial gardens”, separated from each other by water, form an elegant ensemble in this part of the park. Six large greenhouses adjoin the border of parallel gardens and harmonize with the towers on the opposite side of the central parterre. Serial gardens are intimate formations that are hard to find in city parks. Each of them is associated with a day of the week, planet, metal, color and symbolizes a sensory organ and the state of water.
To illustrate the chosen theme of each garden, certain plants are used. Therefore, the task of "Serial Gardens" is not only to fill the space of the park, but at the same time to be its "highlight". Each garden differs from the other in its layout and tree species. For curious visitors, the planting plan is engraved on a cast iron plate displayed in front of the garden entrance. The dominant plant color of each garden gave it its name.
So, continuing our walk in the André Citroën park, we will look into the "Blue" garden. It is dedicated to Friday, the blue planet Venus and the sense of smell, which is why many herbs and aromatic plants are planted here. Bells, cornflowers, flax, iris, delphinium, ageratum have various shades of blue: cobalt, cornflower blue, turquoise.
In spring, liverwort, muscari, obrietta, viola blossom here. The garden symbolizes copper, so morning glory, wisteria, clematis wind through copper pipes and water flows quietly into the reservoir. It may seem that "the pipe has leaked." In fact, it is a symbol of rain. Psychophysiologists believe that the main trait of people who prefer blue is emotional attachment to loved ones, calmness and satisfaction with life. Therefore, they are the ones who feel comfortable in this garden.
The "green" garden is a symbol of Thursday, Jupiter, tin and is dedicated to hearing. It is mainly planted with ornamental deciduous plants: ferns, bone and mountain goats, cuff, euphorbia, hoof, and badan. The variety of shades of green presented in this garden is striking: marsh, salad, olive, bottle, emerald. It has a calming effect, lowers blood pressure and improves performance. Therefore, he is preferred by creative people, neat and pedantic, prone to solitude, constancy and straightforwardness in relation to others.
"Orange" gardendedicated to environment, mercury and Mercury. Orange color tones up and stimulates a person, creating a cheerful and cheerful mood. It blooms gravilat, gelenium, tagetes, chrysanthemum, lilies, primrose, daylily and snapdragons of various shades: terracotta, coral, apricot. The garden symbolizes the sense of touch, which is why plants with different leaf textures are planted here: wrinkled and smooth, rough or prickly. In autumn, the garden is decorated with woody plants with bronze leaf color: gordovina and Sargent viburnum, Norway maple, mountain ash, Japanese spirea, sea buckthorn. But where is the water? Walking through this garden along the path, you will not immediately realize that this is the reflection of the manifestation of water in the form of a stream. The central part of the path is smooth and the color is marked with a "thin stream", which turns into a stream in summer.And the pebbles repeat the bends of the "spring overflowing stream".
The "red" garden symbolizes Tuesday, iron and the hot planet - Mars, because red is associated with fire and blood, excites and uplifts the mood. This color is an expression of vitality, so the garden will appeal to brave and hot-tempered people who live with emotions. One part of this garden is deeply recessed, which has created a rather high waterfall, which is especially impressive when viewed from the upper terrace. Poppies, tulips, carnations, gravilat, phlox, astilbe with red flowers grow among the stones. Due to the fact that the garden is dedicated to taste, trees with edible berries are planted along its borders: rowan, cherry and sweet cherry.
The "Silver" Garden is dedicated to Monday, symbolizing the Moon and silver, which is obvious. It is bordered by white concrete walls, against which the crowns of sheared yews stand out in contrast. The contrast of pale and dark tones is the coloristic basis of this garden; only a person with good eyesight can catch it. The silvery foliage of wormwood, wormwood, silvery oak and other plants symbolize water. The gravel in the center of the garden, planted with islets of cereals, and surrounded by "boardwalk" is the personification of the river.
The " golden" garden symbolizes gold and Sunday. It is dedicated to the Sun, so a large sundial is installed here. In the flower beds are planted elecampane, cuff, loosestrife, solidago, buzulnik, evening primrose, yarrow and helenium with yellow flowers. Woody plants with a golden tint of foliage, even on a cloudy day, give the impression of sunlight. Evoking a feeling of warmth and light, yellow stimulates vision and nervous activity, so it charges you with optimism and sets you up for fun. This garden is preferred by active and sociable people.
It is interesting that only in the "Golden" garden there is a round area surrounded by benches for relaxation. This is a place for conversation and meeting with friends, and when communicating, it is necessary to listen to the “sixth sense” - intuition, to which the garden is dedicated. But you won't find water here "in the afternoon with fire", because it is represented by morning fogs that form over the deepened lawn, which contributes to its evaporation.
André Citroën is a wonderful park to which you want to return again and again, watching its Metamorphoses.
"Landscape solutions" No. 2, 2012