Kaliningrad Botanical Garden

Kaliningrad Botanical Garden
Kaliningrad Botanical Garden
Video: Kaliningrad Botanical Garden
Video: Ботанический сад (Калининград) / Botanical garden of Kaliningrad 2023, February
Anonim
Pond in the center of the garden
Pond in the center of the garden

Pond in the center of the garden

There is a botanical garden in the isolated western territory of Russia, in Kaliningrad. In 1904 it was founded by the German professor Paul Kaeber, head of the Department of Higher Plants and Systematics at the University of Königsberg (then called "Albertina" in honor of the first Duke of Prussia Albrecht, 1490-1568). In those days the garden was called "Urban Gardening", because was created by the decision of the City Administration, funded by the city treasury, and was intended to teach gardening skills to schoolchildren and the local population. The grown plants were used to decorate the capital and suburbs of East Prussia. "Gardening" was founded in one of the most beautiful suburbs of Koenigsberg - Maraunenhof, which in the modern city is surrounded by Lesnaya, Molodezhnaya streets and the railway to Zelenogradsk. The first director of "Gardening" P.Caber collected a collection of winter-hardy plants and numerous representatives of the tropics and subtropics, built 5 greenhouses for them. He died in 1919, as evidenced by the inscription on the granite boulder preserved in the Garden.

By 1938 the rich collection of greenhouse plants numbered about 4 thousand taxa. However, at the end of World War II, the greenhouses were destroyed (only the frames survived), and the German collections were completely lost. The formation of a new collection of thermophilic species and forms began after the reconstruction of the old greenhouses and the extension of the greenhouse. Some tropical and subtropical plants were brought in in 1959-1960 from the Main Botanical Garden (Moscow). In the future, the Garden staff replenished the collection at the expense of seeds, cuttings and seedlings from other botanical gardens, as well as receiving plants as a gift from amateur gardeners.

Greenhouse
Greenhouse

Greenhouse

Tropical plants
Tropical plants

Tropical plants

Since 1967, the botanical garden in Kaliningrad has been a university educational base for botany and ecology. Since 2011, it belongs to the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University. The garden covers an area of ​​more than 13 hectares, which houses 6 greenhouses, areas of herbaceous and woody plants, greenhouses, a nursery and utility rooms, there is even a picturesque pond with an area of ​​1 hectare, framed by weeping willows.

Image
Image

The modern botanical garden in Kaliningrad possesses valuable collections of over 2,500 taxa belonging to 1,600 plant species. Species that are rare in the nature of Russia and the Baltic countries, listed in the Red Books, are given special care. Only among woody plants, more than 30 protected species are grown here - junipers (Juniperus sabina, J. rigida), cross-pair microbiota (Mictobiota decussata), berry yew (Taxus baccata), field maple (Acer campestre), Maximovich birch (Betula maximowicziana), rhododendrons (Rhododendron luteum, Rh. Schlippenbachii), Securinega suffruticosa, Prinsepia sinensis, Caucasian klekachi (Staphylea pinnata, S. colchica), wing lapina (Pterocarya pterocarpa), and other species that have reached 90 years of ageThe eastern biota (Biota orientalis), nutkan cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), bog cypress (Taxodium distichum), and Geffrey's pine (Pinus jeffreyi) are rightfully classified as exotics.

Arboretum
Arboretum

Arboretum

Coniferous plants
Coniferous plants

Coniferous plants

900 taxa are grown in the arboretum, among them 62 species are old trees planted in the period 1883-1924. The oldest oaks and beeches are 107-128 years old. Among the "old-timers" of the Botanical Garden, the black pine (Pinus nigra) is the most beautiful and especially beloved in Europe, moreover, it tolerates the unfavorable conditions of the city better than other pines. Black pine in the arboretum is represented by two subspecies: Austrian (Pinus nigra subsp.nigra = P.n.var.austriaca = P. Austriaca) and Pallas (subsp.pallasiana = P. Pallasiana). The powerful trunks of the Pallas pine are covered with a lighter bark than that of the main species, similar to the bark of larch; these are the tallest pines of the Garden, planted in 1909, directed to a height of 20 m.It is interesting that under natural conditions this subspecies of black pine lives for 350-500 years, is protected in the Crimea,and in the nature of Russia is found only around the village. Arkhipo-Osipovka (near Gelendzhik), and in addition, there is in Turkey, on the islands of Crete and Cyprus, in the east of the Balkan Peninsula and in the south - up to the Peloponnese (Greece).

Pine of Pevki, or Rumelian
Pine of Pevki, or Rumelian

Pine of Pevki, or Rumelian

The 100-year-old Pevki pine (Pinus peuce), 17 m high, with a dense crown hung with graceful elongated cones, growing along the central path from the Balkans. It was named in 1839 by the German botanist Heinrich Grisebach (1814-1879) after the ancient goddess Pevka. However, the tree also has a second name - Rumelia pine, which indicates its origin from the Turkish province of Rumelia in the former Ottoman Empire.

Spruce prickly Glauka
Spruce prickly Glauka

Spruce prickly Glauka

In the neighborhood, in a clearing, powerful blue thorny spruces (Glauca shape) rise, under them a playground is arranged, where restless children frolic. In the collection of conifers of the arboretum there are 27 forms of thuja (Thuja), so diverse in habit: dwarf, medium-sized, giant; on the outline of the crown - spherical (Thuja occidentalis' Globosa ',' Globosa Nana ', Hoveyi'), umbrella ('Umbraculifera'), conical, or pyramidal ('Douglassii Pyramidalis',' Wagneriana '), columnar (' Columna '); by the color of the needles - golden, golden-mottled ('Aureo - Spicata', 'Ellwangeriana Aurea', 'Lutea', 'Rheingold', 'Wareana Lutescens'), white-motley ('Recurvata Argenteo - Variegata', 'Variegata'), there is even a fern ('Filicoides'),heather ('Ericoides') and filiform ('Filiformis'). There is a good collection of junipers (6 types and 38 forms), 8 types of fir, 5 types of larch, 14 types of pines, 10 types of spruce, cypress trees - 3 types and 22 forms. In the collection of conifers there are 3 types and 22 forms of cypress trees: K. Lawson, K. pea and K. Nutkan.

There are about 700 hardwood taxa in the arboretum. A tree made of legumes amazes with its grandeur - Kentucky cladrastis (Cladrastis kentukea). At home in North America, it is called "American yellow acacia." This nearly thirty-year-old specimen is annually strewn with drooping white and yellow fragrant buds. Not far from the entrance, in 1976, a rough-fruited poplar (Populus lasiocarpa), originating from Western China and distinguished by an unusually bright bark, was planted and grew until 2012, but it did not endure climatic cataclysms.

At the entrance to the garden, the variegated ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo 'Variegatum') has grown strongly, another variegated specimen - the Drummond Norway maple (Acer platanoides 'Drumondii') is clearly visible from different points of the garden. In addition, 15 more species of maple grow here, many of which are represented by decorative varieties.

Ash-leaved Maple Variegatum
Ash-leaved Maple Variegatum

Ash-leaved Maple Variegatum

Norway maple Drummondii
Norway maple Drummondii

Norway maple Drummondii

The entire area near the entrance to the Botanical Garden is decorated not only with bright summer houses and dwarf junipers, but also with fancy wooden figures and fairy-tale characters. Here are exhibited "giraffes", "dolphin", "squirrel", "deer", "snail", "wolf", "fox", "princess-frog" and even "imp", skillfully carved by theater artist A. Possokhov, who, despite his considerable age, varnishes and tints crafts, keeping them from precipitation and bad weather.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

The open area is allocated for planting 11 collections of herbaceous perennials, in total there are 17 such areas in the garden. In the collection of peonies (on an area of ​​400 m 2) - 5 species and 34 varieties, very beautiful delicate varieties of lacto-flowered peony (Paeonia lactiflora). In spring, 36 varieties of daffodils, 97 varieties of tulips and more than 100 varieties of irises bloom, as well as hybrid Eremurus ruiter 'Cleopatra'.

Perennial plot
Perennial plot

Perennial plot

Eremurus Ruyter
Eremurus Ruyter

Eremurus Ruyter

Most species and varieties of daylilies (59 taxa) and phloxes (38 varieties) bloom in the second half of summer. The decorativeness of the plantings is complemented by an elegant crown with variegated foliage of a solid-leaved Japanese form of Hakuro-Nishiki (Salix integra 'Hakuro - Nishiki'), a flowering branching tamarix (Tamarix ramosissima). Nearby, under the crowns of trees, lush action (Deutzia scabra 'Candidissima', 'Plena'), weigela (Weigela florida 'Variegata') and chubushniki (Philadelphus coronarius 'Aureus').

All-leaved willow Hakuro-Nishiki
All-leaved willow Hakuro-Nishiki

All-leaved willow Hakuro-Nishiki

Rough action
Rough action

Rough action

Weigela
Weigela

Weigela

Weigela
Weigela

Weigela

A small (0.78 hectare) rose garden with an active fountain, tiled paths, benches and arches for climbing roses is preserved in the Botanical Garden. The replenishment of the collection of roses, represented by 70 varieties, is regularly carried out by the director of the garden, T.A. Yakovleva, who has worked here for almost 40 years and is the true mistress of an unfading corner of outlandish nature. She closely monitors not only roses, but also all plants, especially in the arboretum and greenhouses.

Rose garden
Rose garden

Rose garden

Rose garden
Rose garden

Rose garden

In the garden there is a large flower garden of the floriculture department, creating the “Big circle of continuous flowering”, organized in the 1960s, the area of ​​which has almost doubled to date and is 1.2 hectares. The plantings are dominated by undersized and ground cover perennials with decorative leaves, arranged in an "amphitheater" in three tiers; the background is given to tall perennials. The long entrance to the flower garden is flanked by hosts (Hosta ventricosa, H. x fortunei 'Albopicta Aurea'). In the foreground is a lush clump of pinnate carnations (Dianthus plumarius) and long-stemmed fuopsis (Phuopsis stylosa), especially fragrant after rain. This flower garden, since 2004, has been constantly reconstructed and brought to perfection. A massive planting of hellebore (Helleborus) has already been carried out,but the formation of collections of treelike peonies (Paeonia lutea and P. suffruticosa, 5 cultivars) and rhododendrons, especially those suffering from theft, is still ongoing. In the shaded part of the “Great Circle of Continuous Flowering”, tall Volzhankids (Aruncus dioicus), Astilbe (Astylbe x arendsii) have grown; very impressive bright blue-purple inflorescences of magnificent geranium (Geranium x magnificum 'Rosemoor').

Fuopsis long-barreled
Fuopsis long-barreled

Fuopsis long-barreled

Geranium is magnificent
Geranium is magnificent

Geranium is magnificent

In the Botanical Garden, there are 314 native (autochthonous) species among herbaceous plants in open ground. According to A.A. Volodina and I.Yu. Gubareva, 39 introduced species are able to “escape from culture”: Arum alpinum, Chionodoxa gigantea, Ch. luciliae, Crocus speciosus, C. tommasinianus, C. vernus, Fragaria moschata, Galanthus nivalis, Luzula luzuloides, Muscari racemosum, Ornithogalum nutans, O. umbellatum, Panicum capillare, Scilla sibirica, Tulipa sylvestris, etc. They enter the grass stand together with weeds, but so far their distribution is limited only by the garden. Together with “wild plants” and cultivated plants, the floriculture department has about 1.2 thousand taxa, including 130 medicinal and spice-flavored species and forms.Most of them can be seen in the central part of the Garden in the "Aptekarsky Ogorod", created in 2007 at the initiative of the director T.A. Yakovleva.

Heat-loving plants, originating from the tropics and subtropics, are housed in a greenhouse complex, consisting of 6 departments with an area of ​​about 800 m 2. In the smallest planting greenhouse (area 96.4 m 2), employees carry out cuttings and sowing of seeds. The collections are housed in 5 stock greenhouses: tropical (checkpoint), wiring No. 2 for succulents, the tallest palm (9-14 m high) and the largest (159 m 2) subtropical. Since these greenhouses are in dire need of fundamental reconstruction, as before, they are fired with coal, poorly ventilated, and little adapted for irrigation, the most cherished dream of the Garden staff is the construction of a new modern greenhouse with convenient laboratories.

Astrophytums
Astrophytums

Astrophytums

The collection of greenhouse crops includes about 500 items: ferns, gymnosperms and flowering plants (242 genera from 96 families). Almost half of the greenhouse species are cacti. When familiarizing with succulents, I was struck by a cactus without thorns - Astrophytum myriostigma, which is called "bishop's miter" for its original shape of the stem. More than 100 taxa (from cactus and euphorbia) are rarely found in nature and are listed by the World Wildlife Fund (CITES).

Cactus
Cactus

Cactus

Cactus
Cactus

Cactus

The tallest plant in the palm greenhouse is Livistona chinensis, 14 m high, according to some sources its age is 114 years, and according to others - 124 years! Insectivorous plants (6 taxa from 4 genera) are amazing - subtropical sundew (Drosera aliciae), sarracenia purpurea (Sarracenia purpurea) and tropical nepentes (Nepenthes) with original trapping leaves in the form of jugs.

Venus flytrap
Venus flytrap

Venus flytrap

Nepentes hybrid
Nepentes hybrid

Nepentes hybrid

Up to 50 thousand people come to learn about such natural wonders every year. Although the Botanical Garden is open from April to October-November (depending on the weather), tours are available even in winter. More than 200 excursions are held annually. The Botanical Garden in Kaliningrad maintains business contacts with 200 gardens from different countries of the world, exchanges seeds, and is a true museum of wildlife, as it contains the richest collection of plants representing the diverse flora of the globe.

Popular by topic