Vertically

Vertically
Vertically
Video: Vertically
Video: VERTICALLY 2023, February
Anonim
Loseley Park (UK)
Loseley Park (UK)

Loseley Park (UK)

The use of climbing, climbing and leaning plants for vertical gardening purposes can rightfully be considered a very ancient way of decorating a space with plants. Indeed, judging by the preserved frescoes and other images, the history of this gardening technique goes back millennia. Nowadays, there seems to be a renewed surge of interest in vertical gardening around the world. The manifestation of this tendency is beginning to be felt in our country, although this kind of garden art is still underestimated in our country.

The widespread use of various techniques of vertical gardening makes it possible to quickly and effectively solve many decorative and utilitarian problems that arise when decorating not only garden, but also urban, office and home space. In addition, to solve them in a complex manner, seeking to create a beautiful, functional and comfortable living environment for humans. Placing vines on high supports, the formation of trellises and hedges from sheared shrubs and trees allows you to delimit and structure the garden, isolate the vegetable garden or recreational area.

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It is no secret that with the help of climbing plants, it is possible to partially protect the house and the site from adverse external influences, such as too intense solar radiation, strong winds, loud sounds, dust, soot and exhaust gases. Lianas can protect the walls of the dwelling not only from overheating, creating shading, but also from rain. The denser the cover is formed by the leaves, the more precipitation rolls down along them without hitting the walls. There is an opinion that the condition of the walls in the presence of vines can deteriorate, but this is only a special case, concerning damage to wooden and plastered walls on the shadow side of buildings under a very dense canopy of foliage.

The environmental benefits of vertical gardening are also important. Vines humidify the air, cool it down, and saturate the surrounding space with oxygen. The cultivation of climbing plants contributes to the formation of favorable microclimate conditions on the site, and most importantly, creates a sense of psychological comfort and security among its owners. Vertical gardening makes it possible not only to decorate and give expressiveness to many garden spaces, but also provides a masking of various unsuccessful buildings, structures and technical structures, both on the site itself and outside it.

Plants used for vertical gardening are of great interest in terms of decorative and useful qualities: the color and texture of leaves, the originality and aroma of flowers, and the taste of their fruits. Lianas can be launched along the trunks and branches of dried trees, giving them a "second life", as well as on woody plants that bloom at different times with the lianas, thus creating an unusual illusion of secondary flowering. Arches and pergolas decorated with climbing plants give solemnity to the entrance area, make it possible to organize an attractive garden whist, arrange a transition between different functional areas of the garden. Lianas make it possible to decorate the facades and walls of buildings in an original way, and a pergola or arcade, braided by lianas, can serve as a natural link between the home and the garden space.

Hampton Court - 2011 Small Garden The Potential Feast
Hampton Court - 2011 Small Garden The Potential Feast

Hampton Court - 2011 Small Garden The Potential Feast

Abano Terme
Abano Terme

Abano Terme

In practice, vertical structures of several basic types are used, which can be installed in different places on the site. These are trellises, trellises and garden screens, fencing off various zones, nets and wall structures, decorating fences, buildings and structures. Arches, arcades, bersot and pergolas used in the design of the entrance group and all kinds of passages. Arches are perhaps the most common vertical structure in the garden. They can be made from a variety of inert materials such as rebar, forged metal or timber. The main thing is that their presence should be situationally and compositionally justified.

Kew Gardens (UK)
Kew Gardens (UK)

Kew Gardens (UK)

Often, the main object of vertical gardening is a residential building, which provides a significant area for placing climbing plants and hanging ampel compositions in flower pots. Lianas used to decorate a house emphasize its architectural merits and at the same time help to embed an artificially created structure into the natural environment.

Thinking over the green design of the house, special attention is paid to the facade - it is always in sight and the general impression of the site often depends on its appearance. Depending on the design and size of the house, different climbing plants are usually used in its design. So, for a country garden house, they choose compact vines that rise to a small height, or leaning plants, for example, climbing roses. They are planted near the wall near the porch or in the inter-window space so that the growing shoots do not interfere.

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In bright, sunny places for this purpose, choose low flowering or decorative-leaved plants, for example, varietal large-flowered clematis or alpine princes, large-petal or Siberian. Specific clematis are also planted: Tangut and gray with golden flowers, paniculata, grape-leaved and virgin - with small white ones, vineyards and some honeysuckles are used - such as curly, gray, rough, Brown or Telman. Many herbaceous perennials and annuals are suitable: broad-leaved rank, intakes and fluffy calistegia, climbing azarina, winged tunbergia, sweet peas, fiery red beans, purple and feathery morning glory.

For places with sufficient lighting, choose small-flowered climbing roses - ramblers that can rise to a height of 3-4 m, and bloom profusely on horizontal shoots, for example, varieties "Crimson Rambler" or "Dorothy Perkins", as well as large-flowered - climbers: "Sympathie", “Flamentanz” or “Alchymist”. For growing climbing roses and tall clematis that are not pruned for the winter, it is convenient to use hinged grates, which on the eve of winter can simply be lowered to the ground along with the vines.

Hampstead
Hampstead

Hampstead

Trinity Clifman Garden
Trinity Clifman Garden

Trinity Clifman Garden

In the design of large houses, taller vines are used. They are also suitable for creating shade on a large terrace or for decorating high trellises that enclose the patio area near the house. In this case, such climbing plants are planted, which are quite compact in the lower part, but at the top they grow widely to the sides. The shoots of these vines are directed along the wall with the help of lacing and lattices. It is convenient to fix plants on the wall using wire, strong twine or cord pulled on hooks or screws mounted in the wall, as well as plastic nets or fishing line. You can use gratings and trellises spaced 15-20 cm from the wall to ventilate the wall space.

In such places, high honeysuckle and American honeysuckle are planted, actinidia kolomikta, acute and polygamous, and in the south of Russia - rooting campsis, wisteria abundantly flowering, grapes cultivated, fox, Labrusca, forest and rocky. These lianas are also suitable for decorating terraces, wall gratings, awnings, pergolas and trellises attached to the continuation of the house. Shoot growth in many vines is quite vigorous, so they may require formative pruning, with the help of which the nature and direction of their growth will be adjusted.

A dense green cover on the walls will be created by parthenocissus: five-leaf maiden grapes, reddening in autumn, and Henry grapes, suitable for more southern conditions, and tri-pointed maiden grapes. You can plant Amur grapes, grapes and Coigne, whose wrinkled leaves are amazingly beautiful. In addition, you should pay attention to such species as petiolate hydrangea, schisandra chinensis, round-leaved and brush-like tree pliers with yellow autumn foliage, as well as large-leaved and Manchurian kirkazones with large heart-shaped dark green leaves.

Gate with maiden grapes
Gate with maiden grapes

Gate with maiden grapes

Five-leaf maiden grape
Five-leaf maiden grape

Five-leaf maiden grape

Recently, along with traditional methods of vertical gardening, using the entire available arsenal of climbing, climbing with petioles, antennae and air roots, as well as leaning plants, an alternative direction has been developing quite successfully. It is aimed at the formation of the so-called "living walls", or "phytowalls" from a number of perennial and annual plants, and not necessarily ampelous.

Designed for planting plants are special boards fixed on walls or inclined planes with polymer moisture-retaining materials such as artificial felt, as well as container or modular planting panels. This type of landscaping can be found in many countries of the world, mainly with warm climates, where they are most often used as an original element in the design of urbanized urban areas, office courtyards, as well as for roof gardens, where there is often an acute shortage of space. An important advantage of creating phytowalls is the rapid formation of the volumetric-spatial structure at the facility, and when decorating interiors, the prompt achievement of a picturesque effect.

Living picture based on fiber mat
Living picture based on fiber mat

Living picture based on fiber mat

The founder of the new method of green wall decoration was the French botanist and designer Patrick Blanc, a graduate of the prestigious University of Paris, who in the early 90s of the last century began to conduct experiments of this kind in his own garden. A specialist in tropical flora, he has studied epiphytic plant communities for many years on tree trunks and sheer cliffs. Observations of natural plant compositions suspended in the air suggested to the scientist the idea of ​​an original decorative design of walls, facades of buildings and other vertical structures. Using natural bionic principles, he invented and patented an ingenious method of hydroponic growing of plants rooted in a special polymer substrate.

Patrick's first experiments to create living walls were successful. The researcher was also a talented designer, he designed and implemented a number of exquisite vertical compositions of living perennial plants, such as, for example, the living wall of the Museum of Primitive Art on Quai Branly in Paris. Some of them cover an area of ​​hundreds of square meters, covering the surface of the walls with vegetal carpet of different shades of greenery or turning them into colorful flower beds. Other successful compositions, in which, due to the bulk of the living material used, the surface texture is pronounced, resemble the canvases of the impressionists.

The Quai Branly Museum in Paris - by Patrick Blanc
The Quai Branly Museum in Paris - by Patrick Blanc

The Quai Branly Museum in Paris - by Patrick Blanc

When creating phytowalls, many plants are used: from species of tropical and subtropical flora to traditional garden perennials - it all depends on the purpose and location of the composition. In residential and office premises, many of the plants that grow in our pots on window sills are planted in the walls and panels. On city streets and in gardens, the choice is most often stopped on perennials of various types, bush and curtain: heucheras, hosts, tiarellas, cuffs, milkweed, bells, as well as soddy ones: saxifrage, sedum, ground cover phlox, thyme, carnation, lamb and chickweed many others.

The groups of these plants are picturesquely interspersed with dense plantings of overgrown perennials, such as lamiastrum, chisetae or periwinkle. Multicolored spots, lines and stripes are formed by planting cereals, sedges, ferns, multi-colored or monochrome spicy-aromatic herbs, for example, sage, wormwood, catnip, oregano or rue.

Unfortunately, in the temperate zone, not to mention the more northern regions, the construction of living walls from perennial plants is not advisable, since it is associated with the need to transplant them into the ground annually for wintering. However, under these conditions, nothing prevents the placement of bright flower annuals and a number of vegetable crops in vertical gardens, which retain their decorative effect during the growing season. The list of such plants is quite large; in fact, it coincides with the assortment of species and varieties used in creating traditional flower beds. These can be tagetes, salvias, marigolds, pelargoniums, verbenas and balsams, lilac ageratums and lobelias, as well as, in fact, ampelous cultures: nasturtium, petunias, calibrachoa, tunbergia, bacopa and others. And vertical beds with attractive garden crops,which many now grow in ornamental kitchen gardens, such as ornamental cabbage, salads, chard, parsley, dill or fennel, will not only decorate their homesteads, but also provide a delicious harvest to the table.

Living wall
Living wall

Living wall

Living wall
Living wall

Living wall

An impressive area of ​​planting with exceptional compactness of structures, biological and ecological features of a large group of species used allow phytowalls to simultaneously perform a number of useful functions. Vertical gardens effectively reduce noise, filter the air, trapping dust, soot and aerosol particles. A large leaf area contributes to moistening and improving indoor air quality, and when using phytoncidal plants, living walls can have a healing effect. But the most objective positive impact of phytowalls is to improve the video ecological parameters of the environment and the psychological state of people.

Various designs of living walls are known. A significant part of vertical gardens are arranged according to the principle that Patrick Blanc once spied in nature. There, plants that do not grow on the soil use tree bark with its cracks and irregularities, undecomposed remains of plant fibers, mosses and lichen thallus on the rocks as a substrate for fixing, as well as nutrition.

The most common version of the arrangement of vertical gardens involves the construction on a wall, another sheer or inclined surface of a frame, usually made of metal. Sheets of polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene or other suitable plastic are laid on it, insulating against moisture penetration. Felt mats made of natural or, more often, artificial fibers are attached on top of them. Depending on the thickness and material of the mats, they can be used in one or two layers. In fact, in vertical panels, the moisture-absorbing mats in which the plants take root become a substitute for the soil layer.

Live Picture (Chelsea 2013)
Live Picture (Chelsea 2013)

Live Picture (Chelsea 2013)

Planting material is planted in horizontal cuts made in mats in accordance with a pre-developed sketch: seedlings, and sometimes seeds of annual and perennial grasses, vegetables, and even shrubs. At the same time, the assortment of used plant species can be very extensive, it all depends on the size of the phytowall and the complexity of the plant pattern created on it. Based on the design features of the living wall, the plants are placed in cuts with a bare root system, having previously shaken it off the soil, or, less often, inserted into planting nests directly with a soil clod. If necessary, the landing nests are additionally strengthened by shooting them to the shields with staples using a stapler.

Large vertical panels, like bricks, can be composed of separate small blocks. Walls of complex shapes, corner elements are laid out of them, vaults are formed, narrow consoles are assembled. Fitowalls are decorated with metal or plastic frames, inserts of colored or patterned plastic or glass, mirrors. When decorating interiors, living plant walls can be combined with a flat aquarium, terrarium or miniature waterfall.

For the cultivation of outdoor ornamental species, vegetables and berries, indoor plants, specially made wall pockets are also used, fixed on vertical surfaces. They are made from a waterproof flexible polymer material, they are placed in a nutrient substrate and plants are planted. By combining blocks from several such pockets, you can decorate the surface of a wall or fence, which, after closing the clumps of plants, will turn into a living green wall.

Plastic pockets
Plastic pockets

Plastic pockets

Plastic pockets
Plastic pockets

Plastic pockets

A thin plastic tube of the automatic drip irrigation system is placed in each pocket; small compositions can be poured from a watering can. But between waterings, the substrate in the pockets retains moisture for a long time, this is due to its composition and the use of a special sorbing felt material of the inner wall.

In addition to the described vertical gardens, which use fibrous mats, other options for green walls are being developed, metal (like racks), from a metal mesh - gabion type or from ceramic blocks. Various modifications of panels are also produced, equipped with blocks of plastic rectangular containers with a beveled front wall. Plants are planted in a nutritious peat substrate with the addition of agroperlite and fine expanded clay as drainage. In each of the containers, in principle, it is possible to create an environment for growing certain types of plants, but in this case it will be more difficult to care for the modules. Compared to flat phytowalls, such structures are more voluminous, each plastic container holds several liters of substrate. The total weight of the modules mounted on the wall becomes quite impressive.

Racks - gabions
Racks - gabions

Racks - gabions

Racks - gabions
Racks - gabions

Racks - gabions

In addition to those mentioned, there are also various tubular hollow structures that are packed with a plant substrate, such as, for example, the widespread systems of the "Polanter" type. Numerous holes have been made in the pipes, in which plants, ornamental or vegetable, are planted. Water is most often supplied from below, and a drip irrigation hose runs along the entire length of the pipe. The tubes can be placed in a vegetable garden, orchard, or attached several at a time to the walls of buildings, resulting in green vertical surfaces.

Polanter system in hydroponics
Polanter system in hydroponics

Polanter system in hydroponics

Polanter system in hydroponics
Polanter system in hydroponics

Polanter system in hydroponics

For all living walls, and especially for those on which plants are arranged in tiers and can partially shade each other, it is necessary to provide sufficient lighting. And if there is usually enough light outdoors, in a garden or in a city, then additional lighting is usually needed indoors. The most commonly used for this purpose are fluorescent and metal halide lamps, which have a significant light output and a balanced color spectrum.

Watering is becoming one of the main factors for successful survival and successful vegetation for plants isolated from the usual soil environment. The moisture supply of small vertical modules and panel compositions can be done manually, especially if they are located in residential or office interiors. However, usually watering plants on classical phytowalls is carried out using automatic systems that are equipped with a pump for water supply, micro-drip or oozing hoses, and are also equipped with special filters for water purification. At the base of vertical gardens, containers or trays are usually arranged to collect water and return it to the circulation system. Together with water, the plants on the phytowall are regularly supplied with the necessary nutritional mixtures with the participation of microelements,because a vertical garden is a hydroponic system.

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