Cologne Botanical Garden

Cologne Botanical Garden
Cologne Botanical Garden

Video: Cologne Botanical Garden

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Video: Botanical Garden in Cologne Germany | Ботанический сад в Кёльне 12.06.2020 2023, February
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Getting to this wonderful corner of Cologne is not difficult at all - three stops on the so-called metro from the famous Cologne Cathedral and the main train station. The botanical garden is owned by the city, as indicated by a corresponding sign at the entrance. And you can visit it completely free of charge (unlike the zoo located across the street). It can be seen that keeping animals is more expensive and beyond the city's budget.

Italian garden and rose garden
Italian garden and rose garden

Italian garden and rose garden

It bears the proud name "Flora" and is one of the oldest botanical gardens not only in Germany but also in Europe. True, initially it was located in a slightly different place. In 1388 a university was created in Cologne, which made the city one of the European centers of education, and in 1490 a university botanical garden appeared nearby, intended for the training of doctors. There were no pharmacists as such in those days, and doctors were jack of all trades - he himself makes medicines and heals with them. Gradually, interest in botany as such arose, and the botanical garden developed and expanded its collections. But progress can serve development, or it can hinder it. In 1843, a railway line was opened, connecting two cities of Prussia: Cologne and Aachen. The Cologne railway station was supposed to be located in the city center,next to the famous Cathedral. In this regard, it was decided to liquidate the old botanical garden located there, or rather to move it further from the center. So he got to his current place.

The history of the garden is a reflection of the turbulent history of the last 150 years. The project was financed by patrons from among the wealthy townspeople, in particular, the famous Cologne banker Baron Eduard von Oppenheim took part in the financing. In 1862 a company was founded, or rather a special joint stock company, which oversaw the construction of the garden. Six months later, the consent of the Prussian king Wilhelm I was obtained, and his wife, Queen Augusta, took over the construction.

Front entrance
Front entrance

Front entrance

The original building, which still exists today, was officially opened on 14 August 1864 with a grand ball, concert and fireworks display. The luxurious pavilion in cast iron and glass was designed by architects Max Cologne Nol and Joseph Feltenen. The architectural design was inspired by the Parisian Jardin d'Ivers, but with certain Arab and Moorish features, and the Romanesque round arches hinted at the Renaissance.

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The area surrounding the pavilion was designed by Peter Josef Lene, an eminent landscape architect and gardener in Germany. The park's layout is based on a mixture of styles: here you can find both the classic English garden and the "Temple of Flora" among artificial small waterfalls and shaded alleys, dating back to the Renaissance, elements of the French and Dutch Baroque, Italian Renaissance and English landscape style are noticeable in the project …

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In the 19th century, the park and buildings were often used as exhibition grounds, in particular in 1875 and 1888 for a gardening exhibition, and in 1906 it hosted the German Art Exhibition. The park was expanded between 1912 and 1914 to make part of it a Botanical Garden, with greenhouses for tropical and subtropical plants and orchids. In accordance with its traditional structure, plants from all climatic zones of our planet are presented here.

Succulents in a greenhouse
Succulents in a greenhouse

Succulents in a greenhouse

Calliandra tweetii
Calliandra tweetii

Calliandra tweetii

The "Peasant Garden" is a collection of agricultural crops. Representatives of more than 2000 species of mountain plants feel comfortable in "Alpinum". The medicinal plant site introduces plants used by scientific and folk medicine.

Both sections were merged in 1920 to form a 28 hectare park.

There are several entrances to the botanical garden, but in order to feel its ceremonial atmosphere, it is better to enter through the main entrance, which offers a majestic view of the old pavilion, the magnificent front parterre and the fountain. More than 10 thousand species of modern flora grow in greenhouses and in the open air.

Karyota
Karyota

Karyota

Echinopsis hybrid Heidelberg
Echinopsis hybrid Heidelberg

Echinopsis hybrid Heidelberg

The decoration of the botanical garden is flower beds, where you can admire irises, lilies, other flowers, as well as ornamental shrubs. Some of the compositions include specimens of rare and exotic plants, which are displayed for the summer period in tubs and pots.

Nightshade Rantonetta (Solanum rantonnetii)
Nightshade Rantonetta (Solanum rantonnetii)

Nightshade Rantonetta (Solanum rantonnetii)

Wendland nightshade (Solanum wendlandii)
Wendland nightshade (Solanum wendlandii)

Wendland nightshade (Solanum wendlandii)

The collection of fuchsias, exhibited next to the greenhouses, simply fascinated. All kinds of color and shape of flowers, variegated cultivars, standard and bush specimens, and all this is multiplied by abundant flowering. Well, I really wanted to pinch off one cutting at a time.

Fuchsia exposition
Fuchsia exposition

Fuchsia exposition

Fuchsia Annabel
Fuchsia Annabel

Fuchsia Annabel

Variegated Fuchsia lycioides
Variegated Fuchsia lycioides

Variegated Fuchsia lycioides

Fuchsia Tom West
Fuchsia Tom West

Fuchsia Tom West

Fuchsia
Fuchsia

Fuchsia

In the greenhouses themselves, there are about 5 thousand species of tropical plants, but some of them are on display nearby. For example, in the pool next to the greenhouses, victoria regia was clearly visible among the lotuses. True, her leaves were smaller in extreme conditions. The greenhouse delighted with flowering passion flowers and orchids, as well as other less well-known plants.

Victoria regia and other aquatic plants
Victoria regia and other aquatic plants

Victoria regia and other aquatic plants

Passionflower
Passionflower

Passionflower

Passionflower racemosa (Passiflora racemosa)
Passionflower racemosa (Passiflora racemosa)

Passionflower racemosa (Passiflora racemosa)

Near the most interesting are tablets with stories about history and how they are used. So, for example, about the guaiac tree it was indicated that it was used not only as a diuretic, but also as a remedy for … syphilis, and about Annona, it was described in detail how its fruits taste and how they are eaten.

Guaiac tree
Guaiac tree

Guaiac tree

Steriphoma cleomoides
Steriphoma cleomoides

Steriphoma cleomoides

Cochliostema fragrant (Cochliostema odoratissimum)
Cochliostema fragrant (Cochliostema odoratissimum)

Cochliostema fragrant (Cochliostema odoratissimum)

Next to the greenhouses there are bamboos of all sizes and thicknesses, and a little further there is a shady area decorated with shade-tolerant plants. Dodging in the shady coolness, you suddenly find yourself in a pond with a marble sculpture in the middle.

Shady expositions
Shady expositions

Shady expositions

Pond
Pond

Pond

The actual open ground collections are located on both sides of the wide alley decorated with tubed palm trees and summer houses.

Palm trees lined with summer
Palm trees lined with summer

Palm trees lined with summer

There are collections of plants from different parts of the world, for example, from Asia, America, etc., the host collection. The witch hazel family is very well represented in the garden. I was finally able to photograph, albeit immature, the fruits of witch hazel, which is very widely used in cosmetics and is grown throughout Europe as a spectacular ornamental plant in the fall.

The rock garden is located in the far part of the garden, and to get into it, you need to go around the pond, which is home to huge carps. The rock garden is complemented by something like an ancient ruin. The view is like in an art gallery on canvases of the 16th century.

Bamboos
Bamboos

Bamboos

Pond and rock garden
Pond and rock garden

Pond and rock garden

The botanical garden has a large number of all kinds of thematic gardens - useful plants, cultivated plants, rare plants and a pharmaceutical garden.

Garden of cultivated plants
Garden of cultivated plants

Garden of cultivated plants

Garden of cultivated plants
Garden of cultivated plants

Garden of cultivated plants

The area with vegetable plants looks absolutely charming. Yes, and it is difficult to call it a site - it is a wonderfully decorated corner, where vegetables are separated from the paths by trimmed boxwood and, in my opinion, are presented very advantageously. Interestingly, in Europe, strawberries are classified as vegetable crops, while in Russian agricultural universities they are included in the course of fruit growing. As the modern youth say, the feature of the site is the signs with the names of vegetables in German and the Cologne dialect, which, due to its long existence near France and Holland, has deviated very much from the classics. For example, even if you know German well, it is difficult to correlate the classic word "zwibel" and the Cologne "ollikh", which means onion in Russian. It's the same with cabbage.

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The plot of medicinal plants is designed according to the principle of their action: gastric and soothing, tonic and laxative. The plot is large, but in the overwhelming majority it is well known to all of us medicinal plants. The only difference is that there are a number of plants that we know well, but they are practically not used in our medicine, such as the cuff and goldenrod.

Medicinal plants plot
Medicinal plants plot

Medicinal plants plot

Medicinal plants plot
Medicinal plants plot

Medicinal plants plot

Among the trees, a very amusing installation of wood and a couple of bricks was discovered. It was infested with all kinds of insects. This is a house for insects, which creates comfort for their wintering and reproduction.

House for insects
House for insects

House for insects

And there are many such unexpected surprises in the park, so if you want to see it properly, then plan the whole day, especially since there is where to eat.

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