Main Botanical Garden Named After N.V. Tsitsina RAS

Main Botanical Garden Named After N.V. Tsitsina RAS
Main Botanical Garden Named After N.V. Tsitsina RAS

Video: Main Botanical Garden Named After N.V. Tsitsina RAS

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Main Botanical Garden named after N.V. Tsitsina of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the largest botanical garden in Russia and Europe, and in June 2015 it celebrates its 70th anniversary !!! The history of its appearance is rather long and complex, but the official date of its creation is considered to be 1945, when on the 220th Anniversary of the USSR Academy of Sciences on the allotted territory in the Ostankino forest park, directly adjacent to the agricultural exhibition, now VDNKh, it was decided to build a new botanical garden.

Laboratory building
Laboratory building

Laboratory building

On the site of the Ostankino estate (originally Ostashkovo) 400 years ago there were dense forests, in which few villages were scattered [1]. In these places the tsar's huntsmen hunted elk and bears. The first written mention of the village and its owner dates back to 1558, when Ivan the Terrible granted land to the servant Alexei Satin, who was executed by him during the years of oprichina. The famous diplomat, clerk of the embassy order Vasily Shchelkanov was appointed the new owner of the estate. Under him, a boyar house, a wooden Trinity church was rebuilt in Ostankino, a large pond was dug, and an oak grove was planted. After the time of troubles, the ruined estate was restored by new owners - the princes of Cherkassk, who built on the site of the burnt wooden church the stone church of the Trinity that has survived to this day.

Since 1743 Ostankino has been associated with the Sheremetevs. That year, Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev married Princess Varvara Alekseevna Cherkasskaya, who received 24 estates as a dowry, including Ostankino. Later, their son, an enlightened man, a zealous owner, Count Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev, became the owner of the Ostankino oak forest, rich in birds and game. He forbade hunting, felling, cattle grazing, picking mushrooms, berries and nuts in the oak forest, and so he wrote to his manager: "Do not allow walkers in the grove, and more than shooters and mushroom pickers."

Dubrava
Dubrava

Dubrava

In 1861, after the abolition of serfdom, many peasants near Moscow abandoned their allotments and went to work in Moscow. At the end of the 19th century, care for forest plantations worsened, and later the sale of land for plots for summer cottages began, then a significant part of the forest was cut down, unregulated grazing began, and the destruction of birds and game. After 1917, a law was adopted prohibiting felling of primary forests in the forested zone of Moscow, which was strictly followed even during the war, which made it possible to preserve the Ostankino oak grove until 1945 and later.

The central part of the Main Botanical Garden is a unique protected area of ​​50 hectares. Free access is closed here, felling is completely stopped. This is a well-preserved oak grove with regal oaks, the average age of which is 150 - 170 years, although there are also older specimens - up to 200-300 years. Occasionally there are individual birches, lindens, spruces, aspen, maple and mountain ash here. Under the canopy of trees - dense thickets of hazel, honeysuckle, buckthorn, euonymus. Below is a green carpet of herbs: tender anemone, bluish-pink lungwort, evergreen zelenchuk, fragrant lily of the valley, graceful stellate, strict hairy sedge. All these plants are typical elements of the natural oak forest. They owe their magnificent development to the protected regime of the oak grove. This mode allows you to conduct an ecological experiment - an analysis of the life of a forest in the center of a huge city.Now the reserved oak grove can rightfully be considered the standard of a typical Central Russian broad-leaved forest.

Bereznyak
Bereznyak

Bereznyak

All expositions and collections of the Garden fit into natural forest plantations with oak and birch forests. There are birch forests with forbs, where the creeping tenacious (Ajuga reptans), common cuff (Alchemilla vulgaris), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), spring cleaver (Ficaria verna), hard-leaved stellate (Stellaria holostea) (Viola canina) grow. In summer, typical meadow grasses appear here: hedgehog (Dactylis glomerata), bent bent (Agrostis tenuis), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), meadow timothy (Phleum pratense), sweet spikelet (Anthoxanthum odoratum), shaker forest bluegrass (Poa nemoralis), red fescue (Festuca rubra), etc. At the height of summer, the grass stand of a birch forest is colored with a white daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare),purple flowers of marsh geranium (Geranium palustre) and forest geranium (G. silvaticum); pharmacy drop caps (Betonica officinalis), Phrygian cornflower (Centaurea phrygia); umbellate hawk (Hieracium umbellatum) and hairy hawk (Hieracium pilosella), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), etc.

Road to Stock Conservatory
Road to Stock Conservatory

Road to Stock Conservatory

Passing through the birch forest along the alley towards the Fondovaya greenhouse, in the forest you can see Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) - usually these are the remains of plantings near former summer cottages. At the Fondovaya greenhouse, you can turn left and go along the clearing into the depths of the forest towards VDNKh. Then you find yourself in the world of deciduous forest in the Ostankino oak grove, which existed on the spurs of the Klinsko-Dmitrovskaya ridge and 850 years ago. Oak grove is represented by disturbed herbaceous oak forest; disturbed - sedge and lavender-sedge; as well as indigenous oak forest - zelenchukova and medunitseva. May is the most cheerful and spectacular month in the life of the Ostankino oak grove and Garden, when shrubs and trees bloom, nightingales sing, the air is full of indescribable forest aromas, and it is difficult to imagine that all this is happening in a large metropolis, in Moscow.

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Scheme of GBS RAS:

1 - arboretum, 2 - reserved oak grove, 3 - rose garden, 4 - shady garden, 5 - coastal plants garden, 6 - continuous flowering garden, 7 - flora department, 8 - Japanese garden, 9 - cultivated plants department, 10 - areas of natural oak forest, 11 - road to stock greenhouses, 12 - laboratory building, 13 - old stock greenhouse, 14 - new stock greenhouse

The modern Botanical Garden covers an area of ​​over 331 hectares. Its unique collection funds include more than 18 thousand species and varieties of plants. In 1991, the Main Botanical Garden was named after Academician Nikolai Vasilyevich Tsitsin (1898-1980), an outstanding botanist, geneticist and breeder, twice Hero of Socialist Labor, laureate of Lenin and State Prizes, who led the Garden from the day of its foundation for 35 years.

When creating the Garden in 1945, one of the most important tasks was the arrangement of open and closed ground expositions in order to more fully represent the various elements of the flora. To demonstrate the vegetation of the Soviet Union, a department of natural flora of the USSR was created, which had such botanical and geographical expositions: the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, Siberia, the Far East and Central Asia. In these areas, various conditions were created for plants, sand or stones were added, slides, streams and ponds were built. All plants were planted not on plots, but in clumps, with the expectation of creating more or less natural combinations. There was an introduction nursery for testing new plant species [2].

The modern expositions of the flora department have been partially renamed and show the vegetation of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia and the Far East, as well as wild useful plants. Plants of tundra, dark coniferous, light coniferous, coniferous-deciduous forests, meadows, steppes and deserts are represented on an area of ​​30 hectares. With the creation of these collections, from the first years of the organization of the Garden, a wide attraction of plants from nature began. Every year, since 1946, expedition teams were sent to various botanical and geographical regions: Siberia, the Far East, mountainous regions of Central Asia and the Caucasus. By the hands of several generations of employees of the GBS RAS, perennial plantations with a tree canopy, underbrush and grass cover have been created. In the department of natural flora, over 5,700 plant species have been tested for 70 years.Particular attention was paid to the collection and cultivation of rare and endangered species. Throughout the years of the Garden's existence, the floristic composition of the expositions, the age of woody and herbaceous species have changed significantly. The maximum plant diversity was noted in 1990, when there were almost 3 thousand species in the collections of the flora department. Unfortunately, at present only half of this diversity remains. All expositions are open to the public and are places of recreation for the population. You can get acquainted with the plants of the natural flora from early spring to late autumn.Unfortunately, at present only half of this diversity remains. All expositions are open to the public and are places of recreation for the population. You can get acquainted with the plants of the natural flora from early spring to late autumn.Unfortunately, at present only half of this diversity remains. All expositions are open to the public and are places of recreation for the population. You can get acquainted with the plants of the natural flora from early spring to late autumn.

Exposition of wild-growing useful plantswas established in the early 1950s and occupies an area of ​​0.7 hectares. All herbaceous perennials are planted in curtains of arbitrary shape. In addition, there are trees and several groups of shrubs. When arranging this exposition V.N. Voroshilov developed a convenient and very logical classification of useful plants into sections depending on the field of application, The first section is medicinal, insecticidal and essential oil plants that have a physiological effect on the functions of the human and animal body or have toxic properties. The second section presents industrial plants, among which there are dyeing, tanning and fibrous, which were previously used or are now used in various industries. The third section includes melliferous and fodder plants that serve as food for domestic animals: hay,pasture, silage. The fourth section - food plants - includes species that serve to support the vital activity of the human body - spicy, flavoring, infusion, tea and vitamin.

Exposition of wild-growing useful plants
Exposition of wild-growing useful plants

Exposition of wild-growing useful plants

The exposition of the flora of Eastern Europe covers an area of ​​5.7 hectares. Her collection includes about 300 species of plants, including 20 species of trees, ~ 30 species of shrubs and> 200 species of herbaceous plants, some of which were brought from the Carpathians.

Exposition of flora of Eastern Europe
Exposition of flora of Eastern Europe

Exposition of flora of Eastern Europe

Carpathian hill
Carpathian hill

Carpathian hill

Exposition of plants of Central Asiawith an area of ​​~ 1.6 hectares - the oldest in the flora department, because it was originally laid down in the late 1930s by M.V. Kultiasov on the territory of the Moscow Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences on Vorobyovy Gory. In 1946 this collection was moved to the flora department (in Ostankino), but it was opened for visitors in 1953. Botanical and geographical areas were created here, reflecting the main types of vegetation in Central Asia. The mountainous relief is formed from Tertiary clay removed during the construction of the Moscow metro tunnels. In terms of chemical properties, this clay is close to the Central Asian loess. In the area of ​​deserts, a layer of tertiary clay was poured, which was then sprinkled with sand and humus. In addition, there are plants of tugai, mountain forests (juniper forests, broad-leaved and coniferous forests), subalpine and alpine meadows, steppes and rocky slopes.Over the 70 years of the existence of this exposition,> 1 thousand species have passed the introduction test. Currently, there are about 150 species here, of which 22 species of trees, 44 species of shrubs, 67 species of perennials and 4 species of annuals, among them 29 species are rare and endangered plants. You can see all the exposition areas of Central Asia from the top of the hill: the area of ​​desert plants and tugai is clearly visible in the distance against the background of the Caucasian hill, below the juniper - in an open area between dirt paths, on the right under the mountain - a spruce forest, and shrubs of the middle belt grow directly and to the left of it mountains and plants of deciduous forests.67 species of perennials and 4 species of annuals, among them 29 species are rare and endangered plants. You can see all the exposition areas of Central Asia from the top of the hill: a section of desert plants and tugai is clearly visible in the distance against the background of the Caucasian hill, below the juniper - in an open area between dirt paths, to the right under the mountain - a spruce forest, and shrubs of the middle belt grow directly and to the left of it mountains and plants of deciduous forests.67 species of perennials and 4 species of annuals, among them 29 species are rare and endangered plants. You can see all the exposition areas of Central Asia from the top of the hill: the area of ​​desert plants and tugai is clearly visible in the distance against the background of the Caucasian hill, below the juniper - in an open area between dirt paths, on the right under the mountain - a spruce forest, and shrubs of the middle belt grow directly and to the left of it mountains and plants of deciduous forests.

Turkestan juniper
Turkestan juniper

Turkestan juniper

Slide
Slide

Slide

The exposition of Caucasian plants includes ~ 300 species (trees - 35, shrubs - 43, herbaceous plants - 220), among them 23 are rare species. It covers an area of ​​2.25 hectares, is located on an artificially created mountainous terrain up to 4 m high and on a flat forest area.

Exposition of Caucasian Plants
Exposition of Caucasian Plants

Exposition of Caucasian Plants

The exposition of the flora of Siberia covers an area of ​​4.5 hectares, where ~ 200 species of plants from 59 families and 176 genera are collected. Among these plants there are 18 tree species, 33 shrub species, and 50 species are rare and endangered in nature.

Exposition of the flora of Siberia. Larch
Exposition of the flora of Siberia. Larch

Exposition of the flora of Siberia. Larch

Exposition of the flora of Siberia. Pond
Exposition of the flora of Siberia. Pond

Exposition of the flora of Siberia. Pond

Very interesting e kspozitsiya vegetation of the Far East. It is the largest in the flora department in terms of area (8.5 hectares) and is represented by almost 400 plant species, many of which are rare.

Exposition of the flora of the Far East
Exposition of the flora of the Far East

Exposition of the flora of the Far East

Golden honeysuckle
Golden honeysuckle

Golden honeysuckle

Heather garden
Heather garden

Heather garden

The GBS RAS maintains valuable collections of more than 1,700 tree and shrub species and varieties, collected in an arboretum, spread over an area of ​​75 hectares. The arboretum is built as a landscape park, where plants are planted according to a systematic principle. This part of the garden is very beautiful from spring to autumn, it is also unique on winter days, when conifers are wrapped in caps of white fluffy snow. You walk and take your breath away from such beauty !!!

In 1994, an exposition "Heather Garden" was created in the arboretum, where 7 types of erica, 18 varieties of heather were brought from Germany. This 350 sq. m, located near the Laboratory building, it is decorated with rhododendrons, barberries, spireas and conifers [3].

The "Japanese Garden" exposition arranged on an area of ​​2.7 hectares in 1983-1987 with the support of the Japanese Embassy in Moscow should be considered the pearl of the Garden and a vivid example of the perfection of oriental landscape architecture. Wonderful cherry blossoms were brought from the island of Hokkaido to the GBS RAS, the flowering of which fascinates thousands of Muscovites and guests of the capital every year. More than a hundred ornamental species of trees, shrubs and herbs are picturesquely placed around a pond with islands, next to gazebos and a stone pagoda built in the 18th century in Japan.

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Japanese garden
Japanese garden

Japanese garden

Very colorful collections of decorative and floral plants, which include more than 5.5 thousand taxa. But the exposition "Rosary", which occupies an area of ​​2.5 hectares, is especially interesting. It has been fully restored and already today demonstrates the most winter-hardy and disease-resistant varieties of roses. In the department of cultivated plants on 10 sites, more than 2 thousand varieties and forms of fruit and berry crops, essential oil and medicinal plants belonging to 700 species are presented.

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Rose garden
Rose garden

Rose garden

Rose garden
Rose garden

Rose garden

The greenhouse collections are invaluable, including unique species of subtropical and tropical flora. In total, over 70 years, the GBS RAS has collected more than 5.7 thousand species and forms of thermophilic plants brought from Vietnam, Madagascar, Cuba, Brazil, various African countries, etc. Among them, 100 species are included in the International Red Book. Since 1955, GBS RAS has been conducting international seed exchange with 131 botanical gardens in 30 countries of the world. There is a Herbarium in the Garden, where invaluable scientific material is collected, so necessary for researchers of botanical science.

GBS RAS is a unique scientific institution in which scientists conduct fundamental and applied research in the field of botany and environmental protection. Here, educational and educational work is carried out, showing the richness and diversity of the flora of Russia and different regions of the Earth.

The staff and the Administration of the Garden are celebrating their 70th Anniversary with dignity and are setting themselves new and complex tasks aimed at the prosperity of national science and the creation of a comfortable resting place for Muscovites and guests of the capital.

Garden of decorative forms
Garden of decorative forms

Garden of decorative forms

[1] Vinogradova Yu.K. and other Plants of natural flora in the Main Botanical Garden: GBS RAS. M: GEOS, 2008.208 p.

[2] N.V. Trulevich and other Botanical and geographical expositions of plants of natural flora.. M: GEOS. 2007.226 s.

[3] Demidov A.S. and others. Main Botanical Garden. N.V. Tsitsina - Museum of Wildlife. M.: GEOS, 2007.64 p.

Photo: Alla Kuklina, Ekaterina Bulygina

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