Singapore: Gardens By The Bay, Cloud Forest

Singapore: Gardens By The Bay, Cloud Forest
Singapore: Gardens By The Bay, Cloud Forest

Video: Singapore: Gardens By The Bay, Cloud Forest

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Video: A Tour of Gardens by the Bay in Singapore: Part 2 – Cloud Forest 2023, February
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Ivanova Olga Georgievna, leading specialist of the "Emerald World" company, traveler, photographer

Continuation. The beginning is in the article "Supertrees" of Singapore.

In Singapore's Gardens by the Bay park, in addition to the "supertrees", there are two "domes". Each of them creates its own special microclimate, which differs from the environmental conditions.

The Flower Dome houses plants representing various ecosystems in arid cool regions. The conditions under the “Cloud Forest” dome reproduce the climate of mountainous rainforests, scientifically called nephelogyny.

Under the dome, bottom-up view
Under the dome, bottom-up view

Under the dome, bottom-up view

The area under the dome is 0.8 hectares, and it covers the mountain with a waterfall. Plants are placed around and on the surface of the "mountain". From suspended multilevel platforms connected by "paths", you can look at these plants both from the side and close.

Under the dome, top-down view
Under the dome, top-down view

Under the dome, top-down view

The area under the dome is 8000 sq. m
The area under the dome is 8000 sq. m

The area under the dome is 8000 sq. m

One of the viewing platforms
One of the viewing platforms

One of the viewing platforms

Tracks and transitions
Tracks and transitions

Tracks and transitions

Outside road
Outside road

The road on the outside of the "mountain"

The road on the outside of the "mountain" rises under the "clouds" into the "elven forest". Blooming lianas twine around the fences of the bridges.

Climbing Kobea (Cobaea scandens)
Climbing Kobea (Cobaea scandens)

Climbing Kobea (Cobaea scandens)

Passionflower racemosa (Passiflora racemosa)
Passionflower racemosa (Passiflora racemosa)

Passionflower racemosa (Passiflora racemosa)

In the "mountain" there are elevators, stairs, museums, eateries, office space, designer exhibitions.

One of the premises in
One of the premises in

One of the rooms in the "mountain"

Amethyst geodes in
Amethyst geodes in

Amethyst geodes in the "thick of the mountain"

Stalactites under
Stalactites under

Stalactites under the "mountain"

The height of the “Cloud Forest” dome is 58 meters, the “mountains” under it are 42 m, the waterfall on the “mountain” is 35 m.

The most important purpose of a waterfall (Cloud Mountain), after decorative functions, is to maintain a suitable temperature for the plants. At the top of the "mountain" it is 5 ° C lower than at the base. In combination with high air humidity, this allows plants to create conditions that correspond to the climate in traditional habitats.

Waterfall (Cloud Mountain)
Waterfall (Cloud Mountain)

Waterfall (Cloud Mountain).

Waterfall (Cloud Mountain)
Waterfall (Cloud Mountain)

Waterfall (Cloud Mountain).

Cloud forests are rare on Earth. They are located in the equatorial and subequatorial belts at altitudes from 500 m to 4000 m above sea level. At such an altitude, the temperature drops, the water vapor contained in the air condenses, forming fog, clouds. Mist droplets settle on the leaves, providing the plants with water. The annual precipitation can vary from 500 to 10,000 mm, the average temperature is from +8 to + 20 ° С.

Some authors call these forests moss, elven, mountain tropical, high-mountain rain forests. The Greek name for these biocenoses is nephelogylea, which is often found in special literature.

The flora of "cloud forests" is poorer than the flora of the rainforest, but more endemic. For example, in the south of Venezuela there is a mountain with plants that are not found anywhere else.

Almost all plants love humidity (but not soil) and spraying. Even cacti get moisture with dew in the morning and evening. But there are species that do not tolerate dryness and can only live in humid air.

Spreading Huperzia (Huperzia squarrosa)
Spreading Huperzia (Huperzia squarrosa)

Spreading Huperzia (Huperzia squarrosa)

Coelogyne rochussenii
Coelogyne rochussenii

Coelogyne rochussenii

Elegant neoregelia (Neoregelia spectabilis)
Elegant neoregelia (Neoregelia spectabilis)

Elegant neoregelia (Neoregelia spectabilis)

Phalaenopsis hybrid against the background of Japanese aucuba (Aucuba japonica)
Phalaenopsis hybrid against the background of Japanese aucuba (Aucuba japonica)

Phalaenopsis hybrid against the background of Japanese aucuba (Aucuba japonica)

With the help of nozzles and a waterfall, such humidity is created under the dome that even the optics are covered with a water film. And in this "cloud forest" nephelogyl plants feel great.

Light cloudy
Light cloudy

Light cloudy

100% humidity
100% humidity

100% humidity

In the evening, decorative illumination is switched on throughout the dome.

Decorative lake lighting
Decorative lake lighting

Decorative lake lighting

Decorative lighting of plants near the path
Decorative lighting of plants near the path

Decorative lighting of plants near the path

The plants under the dome are placed so as to show pieces of natural landscapes - biotopes.

Of course, not all of these plants come from the same region of the globe, but in terms of natural and climatic conditions, all these areas are similar. Therefore, all these species are quite compatible, both in terms of biology and in terms of design.

The flora of the moss forests of West Africa and South America is characterized by various begonias. In Asia, begonias grow in the Eastern Himalayas, the mountainous regions of India, South India, the Malay Archipelago and the island of Sri Lanka.

Hybrid begonias. (Begonia Rex Cultorum)
Hybrid begonias. (Begonia Rex Cultorum)

Hybrid begonias. (Begonia Rex Cultorum)

Hybrid begonias do not occur in nature, but they are very decorative and suitable for indoor floriculture.

Tillandsia usneoides, Spanish or Louisiana moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is a typical plant of the tropical rainforests of America. And insectivorous Saracenia are typical plants of tropical swamps.

Tillandsia usneoides (Tillandsia usneoides)
Tillandsia usneoides (Tillandsia usneoides)

Tillandsia usneoides (Tillandsia usneoides).

Insectivorous Saracenia
Insectivorous Saracenia

Insectivorous Saracenia.

Medinilla splendid (Medinilla magnifica) is common in the moist mountain forests of the Old World.

Medinilla magnificent (Medinilla magnifica) against the background of begonias and philodendron
Medinilla magnificent (Medinilla magnifica) against the background of begonias and philodendron

Medinilla magnificent (Medinilla magnifica) against the background of begonias and philodendron

Lush inflorescences of Medinilla magnifica
Lush inflorescences of Medinilla magnifica

Lush inflorescences of Medinilla magnifica

Crystalline anthurium (Anthurium crystallinum) comes from tropical rainforests that cover the slopes of the mountains of Panama and Colombia.

Crystal anthurium (Anthurium crystallinum) or its hybrid
Crystal anthurium (Anthurium crystallinum) or its hybrid

Crystal anthurium (Anthurium crystallinum) or its hybrid

Allamanda neriifolia is found in the tropical rainforests of Brazil. Orchid Miltonia (Miltonia) is also from there.

Allamanda oleandrolist (Allamanda neriifolia)
Allamanda oleandrolist (Allamanda neriifolia)

Allamanda oleandrolist (Allamanda neriifolia)

Blooming miltonia (Miltonia)
Blooming miltonia (Miltonia)

Blooming miltonia (Miltonia)

Most of the species of rhododendrons are found on the mountain slopes of the Himalayas. Although these plants are common in China, Japan, Southeast Asia, Eastern Siberia, North America, New Guinea, Australia, the Caucasus and the Far East.

Ferns are quite shade-tolerant. They find their place on the rocks, snags between stones. The main thing for them, as well as for many other plants in cloud forests, is air humidity.

Rhododendron obtusum
Rhododendron obtusum

Rhododendron obtusum

Ferns
Ferns

Ferns

The climate of the "cloud forest" is difficult and expensive to reproduce in artificial conditions. The required temperature must be combined with high humidity and good air circulation, which prevents the development of algae and phytopathogenic microorganisms. Such a man-made exposition of the "cloud forest", except for Singapore, is not found anywhere in the world. And this is not only entertainment for tourists.

The end is in the article Singapore: Gardens by the Bay, flower dome.

Literature

  1. Bruijnzeel, LA; Hamilton, LS (2000) Decision Time For Cloud Forests: Water-Related Issues And Problems Of The Humid Tropics And Other Warm Humid Regions. Paris, France: UNESCO's IHP Humid Tropics Program Series No.13.
  2. Häger, A., 2006, Einfluss von Klima und Topographie auf Struktur, Zusammensetzung und Dynamik eines tropischen Wolkenwaldes in Monteverde, Costa Rica, Göttingen: Dissertation Georg August Universität Göttingen
  3. García-Santos, G. (2007). An eco-hydrological and soils study in a montane cloud forest in the National Park of Garajonay, La Gomera (Canary Islands, Spain). PhD Dissertation, Amsterdam: VU University.

Photo: Ivanova Olga Georgievna

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