The Raevsky Karasan Estate

The Raevsky Karasan Estate
The Raevsky Karasan Estate

Video: The Raevsky Karasan Estate

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Video: Галасы ЗМеста - Коронавирус 2023, February
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View of Karasan from the sea
View of Karasan from the sea

View of Karasan from the sea

On the eve of the revolution, in the Tauride province alone, there were over 1,100 large and small estates. Among their owners were members of the royal family, and representatives of the noble nobility, large industrialists and financiers. Many small country-type estates belonged to well-known scientists, artists, writers, doctors and artists.

The history of most of them was overgrown with the grass of oblivion, which is a pity, because each was unique in its own way, as, indeed, were their creators. The manor, willingly or unwillingly, bore, in addition to the imprint of the era, the stamp of character and personality of its inhabitants. It is no coincidence that the estates are considered a kind of "portrait" that sometimes captures the history of several generations of people whose fate was somehow connected with Crimea. Among them there are different people: from royal persons and famous statesmen to unknown people. And they were united by one thing - love for the beautiful Taurida - a land woven from ancient legends and traditions, where everyone becomes a poet and feels the reverent spirit that reigns over this magical sunny peninsula.

Of course, most of the estates gravitated towards the most attractive part of the Crimea - its southern coast. There and now, a careful look can distinguish from the endless strip of greenery interspersed oases of exotic plants - the remains of former estates. Sometimes they hide traces of once beautiful buildings, beds of dry streams, abandoned gardens.

In the list of eminent surnames of the owners of large estates on the southern coast of Crimea, perhaps one occupies a special place. This is the name of the Raevskys. N.N. Raevsky Sr. - cavalry general, famous hero of the Patriotic War of 1812, N.N. Raevsky Jr. is also a general (at the age of 11, he and his brother were taken by his father to the theater of military operations and took part in the Battle of Saltanovka in July 1812) The feat of Raevsky and his young sons was praised by V.A. Zhukovsky in the poem "A Singer in the Camp of Russian Soldiers".

N.N. Raevsky Sr
N.N. Raevsky Sr

N.N. Raevsky Sr.

N.N. Raevsky Jr
N.N. Raevsky Jr

N.N. Raevsky Jr.

It is impossible not to recall the friendship of the Raevskys with a person whose name is dear to each of us - with A.S. Pushkin. From school years we know that in August 1820 the poet arrived in Taurida together with the entire Raevsky family. Then they stayed in Gurzuf, in the house of the Duke of Richelieu. In many respects, it is to Raevsky that we owe the appearance of Crimean plots in Pushkin's work. And it is no coincidence that the famous Pushkin's "Prisoner of the Caucasus" and "Andre Chenier" were dedicated to N.N. Raevsky Jr.

More than one generation of the renowned Raevsky family has had a passionate love for gardening, floriculture, botany - in the broadest sense. So, N.N. Raevsky Sr. on his estate in the Kiev province himself dug ridges, planted flowers and had more than one greenhouse. “My consolation,” he wrote to his son, is a new greenhouse, which he added to the sisters' rooms… We have frosts at 47 degrees, and I am at 12 degrees, under ground laurels and olives, surrounded by flowers, herbs, I drink coffee and have lunch… alone. only spoils everything, I built it for the sisters, for early flowers, however, two trees are covered with oranges and oranges, but your greenhouse is not very profitable, I turned it into a grape one … "Another famous war hero of 1812, the poet, confirms this affection of Raevsky Sr. Denis Davydov: "… at the end of the war he returned to his rural refuge, to his family, to his flowers and gardens."

N.N. Raevsky Jr. was also "sick" with this family passion, he was quite well-read in botany. In his correspondence one can find references to purely botanical literature and requests to send or subscribe this or that book on botany. He was on friendly terms with F.B. Fisher, the director of a botanical garden in St. Petersburg, who called him "mon cher fils en flore" (my dear fellow in flora). Raevsky was also familiar with the first director of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden - Kh.Kh. Steven, corresponded with him. As a sign of friendship and respect, Raevsky presented Steven with one of the valuable books of his rich library "Amoenitates exoticae" by Kempfer, published in 1712. With the second director of the Nikitsky Garden - N.A. Raevsky also developed good business relations with Gartvis, they carried on a lively correspondence.Gartvis supplied Raevsky with planting material for the Sukhum Botanical Garden (which was founded by N.N. Raevsky), his Crimean estates, and selected gardeners.

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View of Kuchuk Lambat and the sea bay
View of Kuchuk Lambat and the sea bay

View of Kuchuk Lambat and the sea bay

Even in military campaigns N.N. Raevsky Jr. did not forget about his hobby, collected herbarium and seeds of various plants, which he then sent to Petersburg and the Crimea. Thus, the description of one of the eyewitnesses of the capture of Shapsuge in the Caucasus has survived: "Raevsky, walking along the line with his entire staff, congratulated the army, and an enormous bouquet of flowers of the Caucasian flora, which he collected during the case, stuck out in his belt …"

It is known that N.N. Raevsky was elected an honorary member of the Moscow Society of Naturalists (1832), he was one of the first founders of the Russian Society of Gardening Amateurs (1834). Among the names of honorary and full members of this society were F.B. Fisher, K.F. Ledebour, I.A. Dvigubsky, H.H. Steven, N.A. Gartvis, R. Trautfetter, A.A. Bunge is the color of Russian botany !!!

The sons of Raevsky Jr. were also gardening enthusiasts: the eldest, Nikolai Nikolaevich (third), was a colonel, graduated from Moscow University, did a lot to improve viticulture and winemaking in Crimea, and conducted experiments in growing cotton in Crimea. So, at the agricultural exhibition held in Moscow in September 1864, samples of cotton paper from cotton grown on the southern coast of Crimea were presented. N.N. Raevsky grew on the slopes near Partenit two American cotton varieties (seeds were purchased in Paris), obtained from grassy cotton (Gossipium herbaceum). The youngest son, Mikhail Nikolaevich, was the president of the Russian Society of Gardeners; he wrote the famous work "Fruit School and Fruit Garden" (1903).

In Crimea, the place of application of his gardening abilities and hobbies for Raevsky was the estates of Tesseli, Karasan and Partenit, where he lived for a long time himself, and later - his family, relatives and friends, often like him - avid gardeners. In Tesseli, Raevsky had a rich (according to the memoirs of his contemporaries) estate with greenhouses, a park, and a vineyard. There was a regular gardener there, often discharged from Petersburg. Nikolai Nikolayevich spared no expense for the purchase of plants, which he regularly subscribed to from abroad. So, for example, from Turin, he ordered a whole collection of beautiful magnolias, which he loved very much. Grew up in Tesseli near Raevsky and rhododendrons - new and extremely fashionable at that time plants. He willingly shared them with his neighbors and even sent them to M.S. Vorontsov to the famous Alupka.

A.M. Borozdina-Raevskaya
A.M. Borozdina-Raevskaya

A.M. Borozdina-Raevskaya

Much effort and means of N.N. Raevsky invested in another estate - Karasan, located just east of the village. Partenit, on the shores of the picturesque Kuchuk-Lambatsky Bay, next to the mighty Ayudag. Initially, Karasan belonged to Lieutenant General M.M. Borozdin (brother of the Tavrichesk governor - A.M. Borozdin), and then passed to his daughter, Anna Mikhailovna, to whom N.N. Raevsky Jr.

The estate that Raevsky got was considered "profitable", since most of it consisted of vast vineyards (100,000 vines), which were looked after by the Frenchman Burzhokh for many years. “… The villa of Mr. Raevsky Karasan is one of the best south-coast dachas in terms of location and vegetation,” wrote V.Kh. Kondaraki in 1883.

The origin of the name "Karasan" is interesting. Unlike many Crimean names, whose roots are in the ancient Greek, Genoese or Tatar, Karasan is a name that migrated from the pages of a then fashionable novel, which was in the spirit of the era of romanticism. According to the well-known researcher of the Crimean estate culture - A.A. Galichenko, it was borrowed by A.M. Borozdina from the poem "Lalla-Rook" by T. Moore, translated by V.A. Zhukovsky. One of the parts of the poem is called "The Protected Prophet from Khorasan" (where "Khorasan" is the province of the sun). Thus, the title borrowed from a literary work received a completely earthly embodiment. At the beginning of the 19th century, borrowing elements from literature, poetry, real significant historical events and transferring them to a garden or park was in the order of things and corresponded "principles of romantic myth-making ".

Karasan. In the central part of the park
Karasan. In the central part of the park

Karasan. In the central part of the park

In the organization of the park in Karasan, laid out in a free, landscape style, N.A. Raevsky helped a lot. Hartvis. In the absence of the owner of the estate, he supervised all the affairs there and carried out the planting. From the correspondence between Raevsky and Gartvis, one can glean a lot of interesting information about which plants were brought from the Caucasus by N.N. Raevsky, and special expeditions of the Nikitsky Garden, the organization of which was facilitated by the same Raevsky. This is how the Pontic azalea, the Pontic rhododendron, the Hartvis oak, the Pitsunda pine and many others appeared in the Crimea.

Karasan. Pines
Karasan. Pines

Karasan. Pines

Buildings from the time of N.N. Raevsky on the territory of the estate has not survived, they were wooden and were located, judging by the images on old engravings, on the lower seaside terrace. But the house of the first owner of Karasan - M.M. Furrow.

Karasan. The house of the first owner of Karasan - M.M. Borozdina
Karasan. The house of the first owner of Karasan - M.M. Borozdina

Karasan. The house of the first owner of Karasan - M.M. Borozdina

The youngest son of N.N. Raevsky - Mikhail is building a new small three-story palace in the Moorish style. The uncomplicated stone structure looks very harmonious and elegant thanks to light wooden columns, graceful decorative patterned lattices of balconies and open galleries on the side of the front facade of the palace. The roof of the palace is crowned with a small onion dome typical for the architecture of the East.

Karasan. Raevsky Palace, front facade
Karasan. Raevsky Palace, front facade

Karasan. Raevsky Palace, front facade

Karasan. Raevsky Palace, north facade
Karasan. Raevsky Palace, north facade

Karasan. Raevsky Palace, north facade

Karasan. South facade of the palace
Karasan. South facade of the palace

Karasan. South facade of the palace

In front of the palace there is a cozy paved area surrounded by palm trees, bamboo and flower beds. The dominant feature of this corner, and possibly the entire park, is a grove of pines, which you will not find in any other park in Crimea! It is truly unique and extremely picturesque. The blue of the sea can be seen through the intricate interweaving of trunks and branches. There is a special atmosphere, extraordinary air, gentle diffused light, the aroma of pine needles, resin, flowers and the sea. It is especially beautiful here in the evenings, when the soft light of the sunset rays of the sun from the side of Ayudag highlights the trunks of magnificent pine trees and fills everything around with amazing harmony and tranquility. The shade from the majestic trunks of the pine trees and their delicate umbrella-shaped crowns is especially beautiful at this time of day. How not to recall the ancient belief that the shadow of a tree is its soul …

Karasan. View of the park from the terrace of the palace
Karasan. View of the park from the terrace of the palace

Karasan. View of the park from the terrace of the palace

Karasan. Palms trachikarpus in front of the palace
Karasan. Palms trachikarpus in front of the palace

Karasan. Palms trachikarpus in front of the palace

Karasan. Bamboo grove
Karasan. Bamboo grove

Karasan. Bamboo grove

Karasan. Piney grove
Karasan. Piney grove

Karasan. Piney grove

Karasan. Sea view from the park
Karasan. Sea view from the park

Karasan. Sea view from the park

On the north side of the palace there is a more modest area, now occupied by a flower garden surrounded by centuries-old pines, oaks and cypresses. Several alleys run through the entire park parallel to the sea coast. They are crossed by smaller, freely running paths, now hidden under the canopy of lushly grown tree giants, now lined with shorn bushes of viburnum, boxwood or laurel, now overlooking the open fields or leading to the seashore. In the very thick of the park, under the crowns of age-old trees, you suddenly find yourself in a depression, where there is a small decorative pool with a fountain in the antique spirit. Weeping Babylonian willow, evergreen viburnum bushes and Pampas grass give this corner a special charm. And nearby, on another site, something similar to the former labyrinth of pyracantha bushes is guessed, in the center of which a plane tree rises.In the eastern part of the park, there are the majestic remains of stone retaining walls, arches, and cascading stairs. What happened here before? There must be something significant: several cascading stairs running down from the upper alley of the park down to the sea itself, possibly once decorated with fountains and waterfalls, testify to this. Nowadays picturesque stone ruins are surrounded by mighty pines, treelike junipers, large specimens of large-fruited cypress, Lusitanian and Arizona.large specimens of large-fruited cypress, Lusitanian and Arizona.large specimens of large-fruited cypress, Lusitanian and Arizona.

Karasan. Fountain in the park
Karasan. Fountain in the park

Karasan. Fountain in the park

Karasan. Fragment of the maze
Karasan. Fragment of the maze

Karasan. Fragment of the maze

Karasan. Ruins at the bottom of the park
Karasan. Ruins at the bottom of the park

Karasan. Ruins at the bottom of the park

Karasan. Cascade staircase
Karasan. Cascade staircase

Karasan. Cascade staircase

Karasan. In the eastern part of the park
Karasan. In the eastern part of the park

Karasan. In the eastern part of the park

In total, about 220 species and forms of woody plants grow in the Karasan park, which was founded in 1820. Here you can see whole groves of stone oak, laurel, wonderful specimens of treelike juniper, strawberry large-fruited, Lebanese cedar, cork oak, marsh cypress, sycamore and olives, just countless! Back in the days of Raevsky, a specimen of white birch grew in Karasan, as a reminder of central Russia. And now you can see a birch tree (near the house of M.M. Borozdin) in an unusual environment of pine trees and magnolias. Of course, this is not the same specimen that was under the Raevskys, (perhaps this is his offspring), but the tradition is preserved, despite the conditions - on the southern coast of Crimea, the birch suffers from a lack of moisture and high temperature, and therefore is short-lived.

Karasan. Birch
Karasan. Birch

Karasan. Birch

Karasan. Cypress trees
Karasan. Cypress trees

Karasan. Cypress trees

The former owners of the estate have been gone for a long time. Time scattered their descendants throughout Europe. But, fortunately, Karasan has survived - a man-made monument to the Raevsky family. The glorious name of the Raevskys is one of those that are really inscribed in golden letters in the history of Russia, not only thanks to their feats of arms, but also thanks to an equally noble occupation - to make the land on which you live more beautiful!

Karasan. Brugmansia
Karasan. Brugmansia

Karasan. Brugmansia

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