Outdoor Art In The Gardens Of Salvador Dali

Table of contents:

Outdoor Art In The Gardens Of Salvador Dali
Outdoor Art In The Gardens Of Salvador Dali

Video: Outdoor Art In The Gardens Of Salvador Dali

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Art in the Garden @ Culloden Hotel 2019 2023, February
Anonim

Studying the Spanish experience of exposition and landscape design, one cannot ignore the gardens of museums in Catalonia dedicated to Salvador Dali, the so-called "Dali triangle":

House-Museum of the Artist in Port Lligat;

  • Gala Dali Castle in Pubol;
  • Dali Theater Museum in Figueres.

All of them were created with the direct participation of the artist, who, in addition to the interiors, developed the concept of the external territory surrounding the above buildings. The open-air expositions of these museums are located on the grounds of the museum - in gardens, atriums or patios.

Gala Dali Castle in Pubol
Gala Dali Castle in Pubol

Gala Dali Castle in Pubol

From the standpoint of the exhibitor, they can be divided into two types: an exposition created and conceived by the owner of the house simultaneously with the construction of the building and an exposition created in honor of the owner of the house, in order to more fully reveal his personality traits or to demonstrate any historical events that took place in this house.

House Museum of Salvador Dali in Port Lligat

The artist's first experience in creating art objects in the open air is associated with the purchase and reconstruction of a house in the fishing village of Port Lligat, near the city of Cadaqués and Cape Creus. Since 1932, and over the next thirty years, the olive grove, located near the artist's house, has become a favorite venue for various performances, actions and photo sessions. In the period 1956-1971, Dali creates a patio, a swimming pool, a path along the sea. These parts of the street space become the main open-air exhibition areas. The artist named the concept of the external arrangement of the house "The Milky Way", according to Dali's mention in the "Diary of a Genius". Dali explained his desire to create his works in nature as follows: “Here, on these stones, I became myself, here I forged my personality, found love, painted my paintings,built a house. I am inseparable from this sky, this sea, these rocks, I am forever chained to Port Lligat, where my most cherished truth, my roots, was formed”[1].

Image
Image
Image
Image

Consider the main works exhibited in the open air. The installation "Cypress Boat" is located in front of the modern entrance to the house-museum. This work includes a number of main symbols in the artist's work: the boat is a romantic image, and the cypress growing inside the boat is a symbol of the work "Isle of the Dead" (1880, Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland) by Arnold Böcklin (1827-1901), who became iconic for the surrealists. The same tree serves as the mast of an imaginary ship. The place of exhibiting was not chosen by the artist by chance. The installation serves as a landmark, beacon, center of the artistic world of a creative person. He places it next to a well - a source of moisture, and therefore life in the literal and figurative sense. The image of the well-source entered Dali's work: for example,he can be seen in the painting "Portrait of Gala with two ribs of a lamb balancing on her shoulder" (1933).

In the olive grove there is another installation - "Christ from the Garbage", created by Dali in the form of a lying gigantic man, assembled from fragments of driftwood nailed down after a storm, the remains of tiles, a boat, etc. The work is organically integrated into the garden landscape. It practically merges with the soil and is exhibited without any pedestal or podium.

Image
Image
Image
Image

The part of the garden, occupied by the pool and the gazebo-temple, was originally designed by the artist as a place for demonstrating his own installations and as a platform for performances. The functional qualities of this residential area were of secondary importance.

The concept is based on the idea of ​​the oriental fairy tale "A Thousand and One Nights", as well as the image of the gardens of the Alhambra in Granada. In the niches of the gazebo, Dali placed iconic objects for himself, such as: a signal spotlight from Cape Creus, an elephant skull, a stuffed white owl, DNA lamps, ceramic swan fountains, textile snakes and oriental pillows. During the day, the installation in the gazebo makes an ambiguous impression, but at night, when the lighthouse is on, the fountains by the pool and decorative elements create the impression of a mystical space.

The fountain, created by the artist based on the fountain from the courtyard with lions in the Alhambra, is stylized in the spirit of American pop art. Only instead of lions, Dali uses wine bottles in the form of male bullfighters and female figures of Spanish women in national costumes. The piece becomes the center of the site, which also houses the sofa lips and billboards for Pirelli tires. Bright, colorful accents, not typical for most of the works in the garden, are muted by a white canopy over this part of the garden.

Image
Image
Image
Image

The dovecote, built according to the artist's sketch and decorated with pitchforks and crutches, is currently used as a media platform for screenings of documentaries about the artist. The exposition is equipped with a small auditorium, in the center of which there is an old grand piano.

Numerous other works of the artist, presented in the garden, also work to embody the main idea of ​​the exhibition - the creation of a special creative world, a mysterious space inhabited by signs and symbols that are understandable only to the artist.

Image
Image

Gala Dali Castle in Pubol

The second building in chronology by Salvador Dali is the Castle of Pubol. The artist owns a project for the reconstruction of the 12th century castle and its transformation into a "refuge" for his wife Gala. The main idea in the transformation of the castle and its territory was the theme of ancient ruins. The artist tried to preserve all the signs of the time on the building, actually creating anew its interiors and garden. Taking inspiration from the Bomarzo Gardens in Rome, taking into account the traditions of the medieval bestiary and paying tribute to Wagner's talent, the artist transforms the old French garden layout into his own piece of landscape art. Three main paths lead to the pool area through overgrown bushes of lilac, oleander, jasmine, honeysuckle, etc. In the back of the garden there are small areas with sculptures.

Image
Image
Image
Image

The eastern path is one of the most shady, at its beginning a false perspective opens up to the viewer, ending with a neoclassical statue of Venus. When planning a garden, the artist takes a great interest in various optical illusions, focusing attention on works of art selected in advance, which makes a proper impression on the audience. The western path runs along a low stone fence that offers a view of the panorama of Pubol. On one of the sites in this part of the garden, just like in Port Lligat, there is a copy of the fountain with lions from the Alhambra. The central alley originates from an iron gazebo entwined with ivy. Along the way, in the depths of the garden, there are four reinforced concrete elephants on the legs of a grasshopper and with the claws of a bird of prey. This iconographic image is often found on Dali's canvases, with the only difference that,on the backs of the picturesque counterparts we see obelisks, and on the sculpture - a raven, spreading its wings. Dali depicted a bird on the backs of elephants in honor of the barons of Pubol, who owned the land in the 15th century.

Image
Image
Image
Image

In the pool area, as in the house in Port Lligat, the artist creates a fountain installation. The sculptural ensemble resembles an antique temple with caryatids, a monkfish head and fourteen identical busts of Richard Wagner, painted in different colors. “It becomes clear that this closed world was conceived as a place of solitude, as a shelter where one can indulge in contemplation. In this atmosphere of Proust's novels, Dali enthusiastically plays out his innermost memories …”[2].

Image
Image

[1] Pichot A., Ager M., Puig J. "House-Museum of the Castle of Gala-Dali Pubol", p. sixteen.

[2] Ibid, p. 123.

Continued - in the article Theater-Museum of Salvador Dali in Figueres.

Popular by topic