Modern Flowers

Modern Flowers
Modern Flowers

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Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: THE MODERN FLOWERS - Mary Lee (Official Music Video) 2023, February
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At the mention of the Art Nouveau style, bizarrely curved lines, the absence of right angles and a whimsical interweaving of stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, revived by insects, appear in memory. All of these are characteristic features of the floral movement of Art Nouveau, familiar to us as Art Nouveau. The style is based on the rejection of traditional ceremonial art and an attempt to bring the beauty of nature, new forms and production technologies into everyday life, making any object a work of art. The founders of the style proclaimed the unity of man and his environment, including interior, architecture, art.

The Art Nouveau style, unlike others, is clearly limited by the time frame: the end of the 1880s - 1914. Its distinctive features are:

smooth, bizarrely curved lines (one of the characteristic strokes of which is called "whip blow") and curved surfaces,

  • muted, close to natural colors: blue, white, beige, olive, silver gray, pale purple;
  • dim lighting, dimmed by colored glass lamps and stained-glass windows;
  • the use of natural materials and their combinations: glass, stone, ceramics, wood, metal, fabrics;
  • the main theme of the decor is nature: landscapes, plant and floral patterns, insects and birds.
  • Vase depicting a landscape with a lake. E. Halle 1904-06 France, Nancy, Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Vase depicting a landscape with a lake. E. Halle 1904-06 France, Nancy, Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Vase depicting a landscape with a lake. E. Halle 1904-06 France, Nancy, Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Orchid vase. Circa 1900 Brothers House. France, Nancy. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Orchid vase. Circa 1900 Brothers House. France, Nancy. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Orchid vase. Circa 1900 Brothers House. France, Nancy. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    In the modern era, symbolism is given a special role. Each drawing is not only an image, but also the artist's thought, expressed through symbols, colors and composition. Images of flowers and plants carry their semantic load: the orchid symbolizes splendor, luxury and love, the fern - peace and quiet, the rose - the beauty of life, lily - purity and purity, hydrangea - modesty and sincerity, iris - light and hope, clematis - tenderness, thistle - courage and fortitude. The bud, as a symbol of the birth of life, is becoming one of the most widespread elements of the drawing in modernist style.

    Flowers and a branch of blueberries in a glass. Russia. Faberge
    Flowers and a branch of blueberries in a glass. Russia. Faberge

    Flowers and a branch of blueberries in a glass. Russia. Faberge

    The image of a poppy is often found, denoting the transition between sleep and reality, life and death. Individual flowers are preferred over bouquets that were so popular in previous centuries. There is a fashion for products that imitate a flower in a glass of water.

    The ornament is gaining special popularity thanks to the quite recognizable, but conventional image of plants. Stylized aquatic plants with narrow long stems and leaves - lilies, water lilies, reeds - create a mood of a calm flow of life. The curves of the contours emphasize the dynamics - the growth and movement of plants. The fanciful outlines of the flower, contrasting with the linearity of the leaves and stems, emphasize their beauty and luxury - irises, orchids, cyclamens, chrysanthemums, roses, etc. Iris becomes the emblem of Art Nouveau. They often use images of forest flowers - lilies of the valley, kupavka, dandelions, thistles, cornflowers, focusing on the charm of simplicity and everyday life.

    Ceiling decoration in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel
    Ceiling decoration in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Ceiling decoration in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Ceiling decoration in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel
    Ceiling decoration in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Ceiling decoration in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Sample of decorative fabric
    Sample of decorative fabric

    Sample of decorative fabric "cretonne" with the image of irises. Late 19th - early 20th centuries E. Tsindel's factory. Cotton, mechanical printing

    Sample of decorative fabric
    Sample of decorative fabric

    Sample of decorative fabric "cretonne" with the image of irises. Late 19th - early 20th centuries E. Tsindel's factory. Cotton, mechanical printing

    The standard of Art Nouveau was a drawing by Herman Obrist (1895), which depicts a cyclamen with an ornate curved stem. The characteristic contour of the bend even got its own name - "the blow of the whip" - and was later actively used by artists.

    Tapestry
    Tapestry

    Tapestry "Cyclamen" ("The beat of the whip"), H. Obrist, circa 1895

    The floral movement of Art Nouveau, Art Nouveau, was formed in France, with Paris and Nancy becoming its main centers. Paris was the leader in architecture, Nancy - in decorative and applied arts (especially in furniture and glass production). According to the canons of style, art should surround a person always and everywhere, each object should be unique at the same time. These commandments were followed by the masters of Art Nouveau, who laid the foundation for the spread of the new style.

    One of these masters was the famous architect Emile Guimard. Until now, Parisians and tourists admire the sophistication and brevity of the design of the entrances of the Paris metro, created according to his projects. He was able to give metal structures the shape of living plants. Such works, "animated" by the natural form, are called organogenic.

    Registration of the entrance to the Paris metro. Architect E. Guimard
    Registration of the entrance to the Paris metro. Architect E. Guimard

    Registration of the entrance to the Paris metro. Architect E. Guimard

    The houses built according to the designs of Guimard in Paris and Schechtel in Russia can serve as examples of Art Nouveau architecture. International Parisian exhibitions, which enjoyed great popularity and authority, played a huge role in promoting the style. The number of visitors to Paris exhibitions reached 51 million people. One of Guimard's houses - the Beranger hotel - became the subject of the 1898 international exhibition in Paris.

    Entrance to the Beranger hotel. Paris. Arch. Guimard
    Entrance to the Beranger hotel. Paris. Arch. Guimard

    Entrance to the Beranger hotel. Paris. Arch. Guimard

    Fragment of the facade of the Beranger mansion. Paris. Arch. Guimard
    Fragment of the facade of the Beranger mansion. Paris. Arch. Guimard

    Fragment of the facade of the Beranger mansion. Paris. Arch. Guimard

    Figure A. Flies
    Figure A. Flies

    Figure A. Flies

    And the exhibition pavilion of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1900 was designed by another master of Art Nouveau - Alphonse Mucha, whose theatrical posters with female figures in flowing clothes and floral ornaments became the style canon.

    The aim of Art Nouveau is to create a comfortable and beautiful living environment. That is why the complex design of buildings in the same style is in vogue - from the roof to the last nail. The architect designs the building from the inside out, first shaping the interior and only then moving on to the design of the building's facade, which often becomes asymmetrical.

    Architecture and interior are interconnected and united by a common stylistic expression. One of the characteristic features of Art Nouveau buildings is ceramic mosaic panels. This is how the friezes of houses are often decorated. A unified style of interior decoration leads to the creation of unique ensembles, including ceilings, lamps, wall panels, furniture sets and parquet floors.

    Asymmetrical facade of the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel
    Asymmetrical facade of the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Asymmetrical facade of the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Frieze of Ryabushinsky's mansion depicting orchids. Architect Shekhtel
    Frieze of Ryabushinsky's mansion depicting orchids. Architect Shekhtel

    Frieze of Ryabushinsky's mansion depicting orchids. Architect Shekhtel

    Frieze of Ryabushinsky's mansion depicting orchids. Architect Shekhtel
    Frieze of Ryabushinsky's mansion depicting orchids. Architect Shekhtel

    Frieze of Ryabushinsky's mansion depicting orchids. Architect Shekhtel

    Entrance hall of Ryabushinsky's mansion. Stained-glass window in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel
    Entrance hall of Ryabushinsky's mansion. Stained-glass window in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Entrance hall of Ryabushinsky's mansion. Stained-glass window in the Ryabushinsky mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Entrance hall of Ryabushinsky's mansion. Architect Shekhtel
    Entrance hall of Ryabushinsky's mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Entrance hall of Ryabushinsky's mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Uniform decoration of walls, fireplace and doors in the living room of the Derozhinskaya mansion. Architect Shekhtel
    Uniform decoration of walls, fireplace and doors in the living room of the Derozhinskaya mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    Uniform decoration of walls, fireplace and doors in the living room of the Derozhinskaya mansion. Architect Shekhtel

    In some cases, artists, creating a harmonious living environment, completely develop not only the interior, but even the home clothes of the owners. On this wave, leading figures appear, who were subject to everything: from the Sagrada Familia cathedral to the ornament of the bench, from the palace to the window bolt in it.

    The furniture of this period is characterized by a large number of various platforms - shelves, tables and whatnots - for placing decorative elements. But Art Nouveau found its maximum expression in decorative and applied art. The idea of ​​growth and development - key in the philosophy of Art Nouveau - makes plants the most convenient and expressive motive for decoration. Art Nouveau does not strive for a three-dimensional image, giving preference to bizarre flat patterns, which is facilitated by the accepted conventionality of depicting plants.

    Samples of ornaments and sketches of plants. Verney M.P
    Samples of ornaments and sketches of plants. Verney M.P

    Samples of ornaments and sketches of plants. Verney M.P. "Sketches of plants and their use in artistic craft", 1908

    Image
    Image
    Image
    Image

    Glass is becoming one of the most popular decorative elements. In this field, the French Emile Galle and the American Louis Comfort Tiffany succeeded and became famous. Tiffany's stained glass technique has gained particular popularity. The technology of joining pieces of colored glass with copper foil has made it possible to create bright, exquisite products. The unique works of Lalique and Faberge left an indelible mark on the jewelry art of this period. Faberge Easter eggs "Clover" and "Lilies of the valley", which invariably delight the audience, are a vivid example of the floral trend of Art Nouveau. The entire surface of the Clover egg is a continuous ornament of clover leaves.

    Tiffany lamp
    Tiffany lamp

    Tiffany lamp

    Faberge Easter egg
    Faberge Easter egg

    Faberge Easter egg "Clover", 1902 Russia. Storage location: Kremlin Armory. Moscow

    Emile Halle (1846-1904) was at the forefront of Art Nouveau. He supplemented the professional education of the designer with a deep knowledge of the philosophy and poetry of symbolism, botany and biology. Later, this knowledge will be embodied in his works with details of the image of plants and a philosophical understanding of nature. Knowledge of the poetry of symbolism will allow him not only to subtly feel, but also to weave the lines of his favorite poets - C. Baudelaire, S. Malarmé, P. Verlaine, F. Villon - into his products, which brought him fame as the author of "talking glass".

    Galle was brought to the top of his glory by his vases made of laminated glass. At the Paris International Exhibition in 1898, his works were awarded the gold medal of the exhibition, and their author was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.

    In the drawings and ornaments of his works, there are often images of umbrella, wild orchids, levkoi, bindweed, rowan and currant leaves, as well as oriental motifs with pine branches and cones, sakura, birds and fish.

    In Galle vases, there are from 2 to 5 layers of colored glass (usually three), creating different shades. The multilayer workpiece was etched, as a result of which a volumetric translucent pattern appeared, like on cameos, which was perfected using engraving. This "cameo glass" technique that made Halle famous was developed from the ancient Chinese technology of laminated carved glass. Galle vases are always heavy, with a polished disc at the bottom, allowing you to see the multi-layered structure of the product. Galle's works are full of romantic landscapes and ornaments of flowers, fruits, herbs and insects, creating together a unique pattern, in which the author's signature is organically woven.

    Vase with wild orchids. E. Galle
    Vase with wild orchids. E. Galle

    Vase with wild orchids. E. Galle

    Fern vase. C. 1904 E. Galle
    Fern vase. C. 1904 E. Galle

    Fern vase. C. 1904 E. Galle

    Landscape vases. E. Galle. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Landscape vases. E. Galle. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Landscape vases. E. Galle. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    By 1900, Emile Halle had reached the peak of his fame. Not a single self-respecting house, regardless of the level of wealth, could do without his products. Halle divided the products of his factory into three categories: serial, produced in industrial circulation, small-scale or "semi-luxurious" (demi-rich), as it was called, produced in small batches, and exclusive (Pieces uniques - unique products) or "luxurious", made by himself by Galle himself in a single copy, such as a vase with a dragon.

    The first Romanian queen, Elizabeth, was a fan and patroness of Galle, who opened a branch of his factory in Romania. Unique vases donated by the author personally (such as Edelweiss, Honey Cup, Paradise Muse, Moonlight) laid the foundation for the collection of the Romanian royal house.

    An excellent collection of Galle's works is kept in the General Staff Building of the St. Petersburg Hermitage. Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna were also fascinated by the work of Halle in 1896-1900. The Empress's chambers were decorated with his products. It is known that she specially selected her desk to place a vase with clematis on it, and Nicholas II was presented with pair vases with pink orchids as a gift from Lorraine. Some of Galle's products, by order of Alexandra Feodorovna, were set in silver by Faberge.

    The Galle vases exhibited at the 1900 Paris World Exhibition were acquired by Baron A.L. Stieglitz, whose collection after the revolution multiplied the treasures of the Hermitage.

    Vase with a dragon. 1890s. E. Galle
    Vase with a dragon. 1890s. E. Galle

    Vase with a dragon. 1890s. E. Galle

    E. Galle lamp
    E. Galle lamp

    E. Galle lamp

    Electricity, a novelty at the end of the 19th century, gave impetus to Halle's new work - the first glass lampshades and lamp holders. Made in the technique of marquetry or cameo, illuminated from the inside and giving a subdued light, they made a splash in the market. Many models of table lamps were created by Halle in cooperation with Louis Majorelle, who made artistic frames for glass.

    In 1901, on the initiative of Halle, the Alliance Provinciale des Industries d'Art was created, which united small local workshops producing decorative and applied arts, and gave impetus to the development of the art industry of the whole region.

    Nancy furniture. Storage location: Museum of Decorative Arts. Paris
    Nancy furniture. Storage location: Museum of Decorative Arts. Paris

    Nancy furniture. Storage location: Museum of Decorative Arts. Paris

    Later, the Alliance was named the School of Nancy (L'Ecole de Nancy), after the name of the art school of design, created in the Alliance and existed for more than 10 years. Over time, the name "School of Nancy" became associated with the center of the production of Art Nouveau products. The School's emblem was the Lorraine cross and thistle, symbolizing endurance.

    The huge variety of high-class artwork produced by the Alliance members has earned the School fame at international exhibitions and public recognition in Germany, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy, America and Russia.

    Halle's success was contagious. His example was followed by the Dom brothers, members of the Alliance, whose glass factory Daum Freres & Cie. Verreries de Nancy”is still flourishing. Since 1889, they began the industrial production of vases with plant designs. Their products are distinguished by a more naturalistic image. The list of processing methods was practically the same as that of Halle, mass production lacked only the sophistication of shades and overflows of color. Cameo glass vases and lamps were the most popular of their product range.

    Vase from the brothers' factory Dom. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Vase from the brothers' factory Dom. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Vase from the brothers' factory Dom. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Vases from the brothers' factory Dom. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Vases from the brothers' factory Dom. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Vases from the brothers' factory Dom. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Having achieved popularity with the help of cameo glass, Galle could not stay away from creating furniture. Due to the complexity of processing, it was created only as unique or "semi-luxurious", according to the gradation of Galle himself. The furniture was made of rosewood, oak, maple, walnut, fruit species - apple, pear. The master gave preference to local tree species growing in Lorraine. Relief inlay with different types of wood and the obligatory manual processing of details distinguished his products. For decoration Galle used natural motives, butterflies and dragonflies. In his opinion, "The decor of modern furniture, closely associated with nature, cannot remain insensitive to the nobility of natural forms."

    In addition to inlays, many carved elements appear in his works. The shape often becomes asymmetrical, and for the first time the legs of objects take the form of dragonflies or frog legs, or are decorated with floral ornaments.

    Typesetting table with legs in the form of dragonflies. Around 1900 E. Galle. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Typesetting table with legs in the form of dragonflies. Around 1900 E. Galle. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    Typesetting table with legs in the form of dragonflies. Around 1900 E. Galle. Storage location: The main headquarters of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg

    1909 was the last year that works by members of the School of Nancy were exhibited together. Art Nouveau, with its sophisticated and expensive pieces that sought exclusivity, gave way to a more economically viable Art Deco style with mass production of cheap art pieces.

    In 1964 the Museum of the School of Nancy was opened. Most of the museum's exhibits are examples of unique furniture, stained glass and Art Nouveau glass. The museum garden is decorated with an oak door to the Galle workshop, made in 1897 by the cabinetmaker Eugene Wallen. It is decorated with carved chestnut leaves and Emile Galle's motto "My roots are deep in the forest", which reflects all of his work.

    At the end of the 1990s, the School resumed its existence, and 1999 was declared the year of the School of Nancy. In 2013 in the Grand Palace of the Tsaritsyno Museum-Reserve the exhibition “Emile Galle. Glass Rhapsody”, where one could get acquainted with the work of Galle.

    Over time, the floral trend of Art Nouveau, carrying ideas of renewal and beauty in everyday life, began to be associated with Art Nouveau in general. The stylized image of flowers and bizarrely curved lines each time return us to the era of the Silver Age, giving us the joy of communicating with nature and art.

    Photo: Tatiana Chechevatova, Tatiana Zaykis

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