Video: National Park "Saylyugemsky"
The Saylyugemsky National Park, the first national park in Altai, appeared on the map of Russia relatively recently. This specially protected natural area was created in 2010 in the Kosh-Agach region of the Altai Republic. The main purpose of the park is to protect endangered and rare Red Book species of plants and animals in the Altai highlands, including the snow leopard, the Altai mountain sheep argali - the world's largest subspecies of argali, and the saker falcon. Since 2016, a project has been underway on the territory of the park, in which scientists from all over the world are participating - monitoring and studying the wild manul cat.
The territory of the park is an area of wild and harsh nature on the border with Mongolia. The total area occupied by the park is 118 thousand hectares. In these parts, the population density is less than one person per 1 sq. km. This harsh world belongs to domestic and wild animals that peacefully graze in endless valleys and on mountain slopes.
It is here that you can see the harsh beauty of pristine nature: the silence of the high-mountainous plateaus, the depth of the blue sky overhead, the chime of crystal springs and rivers, the piercing causticity of the mountain air - the inimitable grandeur of the Altai Mountains.
In these parts, people, plants and animals are used to living in peace with each other. People living here - both Altaians and Kazakhs - carefully preserve the ancient commandments and traditions, closely intertwined with the laws of nature, maintaining a reverent attitude towards the world around them.
Local residents - modern descendants of nomadic pastoralists - live according to the ancient commandments "Do no harm" and "Take exactly as much as necessary." The ceremonies of these people, as before - their distant ancestors - are directed towards fire, mountains and nature. And reverence for the native land is the basis of the worldview of local residents.
The climate of the park is rather harsh, sharply continental, in places the temperature can even drop to -62 ° С. And the frost-free period lasts only about 35-60 days a year. The absolute summer maximum is + 31 ° С.
Due to the large extent of the territory of the Saylyugemsky National Park, its fauna and flora are unique and heterogeneous in composition. If in one of the parts of the park, steppes and meadows prevail, then in the other, high-mountain tundra communities are more common.
In the highest parts, lichen and stony tundras prevail, on the southern slopes, located below 2600 m, you can find areas with steppe vegetation. Deserted steppes rise high into the mountains, where there are also swampy areas, stony placers and rocks. The most common vegetation is grasses and lichens.
In the river valleys there are forests (larch-spruce, birch-spruce, poplar, cedar-larch) and high-mountain tundra communities. There are only very small areas with subalpine and alpine meadows and yerniks.
The flora of the Saylyugem National Park includes a large number of rare species with a limited range. Astragals are listed in the Red Book of the Altai Republic: Aksai, Argut, short-leaved, wrinkled, Politova, luxurious, Chuisky; sharp-watermen: Ladygina, Martyanova, lower alpine, bubbly, fluffy bubbly, Sapozhnikova, etc.
Southeastern Altai, where the national park is located, is considered the center of speciation and includes plants that are slightly restricted from closely related species.
The territory of the national park, which in the recent past served as an arena of glacial processes that led to the destruction of previously existing vegetation, is still in the stage of intensive formation of flora both due to migration from neighboring regions and through speciation.
Photo: Tatiana Bulanova
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