Sayano-Shushensky Natural Reserve

Sayano-Shushensky Natural Reserve
Sayano-Shushensky Natural Reserve

Video: Sayano-Shushensky Natural Reserve

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Заповедник "Саяно-Шушенский" 2023, February
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Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve
Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve

Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve

In modern Russia, there are 110 reserves, 56 national parks, 60 state nature reserves, 17 natural monuments, 67 dendrological parks and botanical gardens of federal significance. The Sayano-Shushensky nature reserve is one of the most remote places in Russia. The reserve is located in the very “heart” of the Western Sayan and Altai-Sayan mountainous country, on the territory of Shushensky and Ermakovsky districts of Krasnoyarsk Territory.

The reserve has its modern history since March 1976. Although these places were recognized as reserves back in 1915 with the aim of protecting the sable population. The Sayan reserve of the Yenisei province existed only until 1919, later it was created again, but was closed in 1951. Since 1985, by decision of UNESCO, the reserve has been included in the international network of biosphere reserves of the planet, and since 1988 it acquired the status of a biosphere.

The area of ​​the reserve is 390.4 thousand hectares of the southwestern lands of the Shushensky and Ermakovsky districts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

The famous reservoir of the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP is located on the territory of the reserve, its impact on the environment is constantly being studied.

Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve
Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve

Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve

The landscapes here are heterogeneous. The dark coniferous taiga is gradually replaced by mountain-steppe expanses. The main Sayan ridge divides the territory into two parts diametrically different in terms of climatic and geographic factors. The northern part is characterized by an abundance of cedar taiga trees, occupying about 1000 square kilometers, the second, and the southern part by bald plateaus. Forests occupy almost 60% of the park's territory, mountain steppes are located at 9.6%, tundra got 19.4%, and the remaining 11.9% were dominated by rock massifs.

The territory of the protected zone is the habitat of many rare and endangered species of animals and birds, including the snow leopard (irbis), which is listed in the Red Book; ibex (Siberian ibex), saker falcon, peregrine falcon, Altai snowcock, black stork and other representatives of the animal world. The population of marals, bears and ibex is especially large. The mountain tundra is inhabited by up to 200 individuals of the reindeer - the southernmost mountain-taiga form of this species. Only the reserve regime allows preserving the population of the golden eagle, peregrine falcon, osprey and saker falcon.

The local rivers, mountain lakes, alpine meadows and taiga cedar forests are preserved in their original form.

Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve
Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve

Sayano-Shushensky natural reserve

The flora of these protected areas is very rich and diverse, as it combines plants that are familiar to the Siberian taiga and the Central Asian steppes. Scientists have discovered here more than 1,000 species, many of which can be found on the pages of the Red Book, as well as relic vegetation.

The Sayano-Shushenskaya nature protection zone, like many other reserves and national parks, is located at the junction of floristic regions. Its flora is characterized by a mixed type. In the north, the vegetation of the Sayan-Altai zone prevails, and in the south, the Central Asian zone. Diverse zones join together on the Sayan ridge. Here is the expanse of such endemics as the Altai bluegrass and Krylov's wheatgrass. The conditions for the growth of the Borodino catchment area and the Yenisei and Baikal anemone are ideal. The soils of the reserve are covered with Bunge lumbago and swollen resin.

Lumbago bunge (Pulsatilla bungeana)
Lumbago bunge (Pulsatilla bungeana)

Lumbago bunge (Pulsatilla bungeana)

According to the results of the inventory of flora in 2016 and materials of long-term research for the territory of the reserve, it was established: algae - 7 species; lichens - 263 species; mushrooms - 245 species; mosses - 321 species; vascular plants - 1086 (1047 species, 32 subspecies and 7 variations of vascular plants). Of this number, 14 species are included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, 98 species are included in the Red Data Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, 75 species are classified as relict forms, 13 species are endemic to the Western Sayan.

Many of them are medicinal plants growing in these parts, for example, golden root, leuzea. The maral and the golden root, which were on the verge of extinction before the Sayano-Shushensky reserve was created, are now in no danger. The relict vegetation is represented here by Daurian rhododendron and touchy core. Found in the nature protection zone corners suitable for the growth of fragrant woodruff and Far Eastern fescue. Also in these places there is a Siberian princess, Turchaninov's lumbago, Ledebour's rhododendron, Rhodiola rosea, shoes, Siberian burena, tiger iris, Siberian fir, pine, cedar, hazel grouse, two-flowered wrestler, lady's slipper, dog mutinus (mushroom).

The tree layer of the taiga zone is formed by Siberian pine (cedar), Scots pine, Siberian larch, Siberian fir, common spruce, drooping birch, goat willow, Siberian mountain ash, aspen. The shrub layer is represented by bird cherry, Siberian elder, white pig, dark purple currant, needle gooseberry, Daurian rhododendron, marsh wild rosemary, caragana tree. Among the shrubs in this forest zone, the following were noted: lingonberry, northern linnea, single-seeded ephedra. In the herbaceous tier, you can find the European perennial, the hoof-leaved wintergreen, the spreading mountaineer, the evading peony, Ivan-tea, the dissected hogweed, the common harp, the stinking black cohosh, the thick-leaved bergus, the northern wrestler, the poplar sedum.

Pine seedling
Pine seedling

Pine seedling

Scots pine and laurel poplar are found in the forest-steppe zone. The shrub layer is formed by middle meadowsweet, Altai honeysuckle, needle rose, and caragan - dwarf and Altai. In the herbaceous layer, the common clematis is etuzolic, northern breakthrough, bird knotweed, white melilot, Kuvaeva poppy, Asian yarrow, single-leaved buttercup, bedstraw, hybrid sedum.

The flora of the steppe zone is represented by caragana dwarf, Siberian barberry, cold wormwood, silver panzeria, dissected violet, alpine aster, stemless cinquefoil.

This region, in its essence, is a unique reserve of practically undeveloped natural complexes. These places will not leave anyone indifferent, striking and delighting with the wildness and virginity of the local nature. Landscapes of fabulous beauty, woven by meadows, lakes and waterfalls; rugged cliffs cut by cheerful streams; impenetrable taiga - all this is the Sayano-Shushensky nature reserve.

Photo: Tatiana Bulanova

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